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SECURITY CHALLENGES IN BENIN
1.1 Background of the study
One can posit that Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. Inter and intra-communal and ethnic clashes, ethno religious violence, armed robbery, assassination, murder, gender-based violence, and bomb explosion have been on the increase leading to enormous loss of life and property and a general atmosphere of siege and social tension for the populace (Ibrahim and Igbuzor, 2002:2). While communities and ethno-regional and religious groups fight each other, state agents and party officials have been involved in the perpetration of violence and destruction as reflected in the Odi, Benue, Jos and Rivers crises.
The paper takes a critical look at the thematic form of the concept of insecurity and its various manifestation using concrete examples. It goes to posit on the need to check the rising threats to lives and property across Nigeria and the poor living conditions of many Nigerians. The paper also identifies the implications and challenges insecurity possess for the polity and concludes by making recommendations to the challenges posed by these security threats and by positing that Nigeria’s democracy is endangered by political intolerance, and economic frustration gather momentum in the form of assassinations, intimidations, threats and hostage taken across Nigeria.
For the purpose of this paper, insecurity refers to the breach of peace and security, whether historical, religious, ethno-regional, civil, social, economic and political that have contributed to recurring conflicts, which Nigeria has witnessed over the years resulting in wanton destruction and loss of lives and property.
Manifestations of Insecurity in Nigeria
The under listed are the various manifestations of conflict and insecurity in Nigeria:
Although by no means limited to oil in the Niger Delta, the most prevalent campaign about the link between resources and conflict focuses on oil and the Delta region. Put differently, there is evidence to suggest that oil has given rise to vertical and horizontal conflicts between National, State and society or between dominant and subordinate geopolitical zones, classes and groups across Nigeria, given the pivotal role that oil plays in the restructuring power relations in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the problem
One of the major of the causes of insecurity would show that improper funding of the police and other security agencies is the major cause of insecurity question in Nigeria. Example is the appalling level of training facilities in the Police College that was recently uncovered by Channels Television. How can the police who is ill trained combat the technological advancing crime in the country.
Closely related to the fore is the fact that there are inadequacies in the security agencies, modern communication equipment, sophisticated arms and ammunition that the security agencies will be able to use to contain these criminal gangs and other crimes.
The rate of Unemployment and the monetization of the labour market is another cause. This is as a result of high unemployment, graduates without jobs have gone a lot of mental torture, frustrating suspense, and idle illness in the process of securing jobs and in the process they got involved in all sort of fiscal indiscipline and corruption and other social vices. This army of unemployed force themselves into the police force and other para military and military agencies.
It is irony of the Nigerian situation that the nation’s law enforcement agents are even more corrupt than those they are supposed to police. This has sometimes been blamed on the manner and caliber of men and women recruited in the Nigerian security outfit. Merit and good character are thrown to the winds during recruitment as men and women of questionable character including criminals, bribe their way into the force …. Little wonder therefore that many of the recruits hide under uniform to wreck havoc on the society.
The Influence of Social Media is another root cause of Insecurity in the country. Social media such as facebook, twitter has turned what is supposed to be private to be public and in a way, the surety information of people are being breeched. Example is the recently reported Cynthia Osokogu saga who was raped and killed by criminals who she met on the social media.
Revenue sharing formula in the country can also be seen as one of the major cause of insecurity in the country which has led to a geo political zone in the country clamoring for better sharing of revenue. The Niger Delta is a delicate place for foreigners and some oil workers to tread now. One of their reasons for carrying arms is their call for unequal and unjust revenue coming from crude oil.
Gross party indiscipline and infighting among political gladiators is another. It is worthy to be noted that a sizeable proportion of those who have suffered attacks in recent times have been members of the ruling party and leading opposition parties and their allies.
Politics in Nigeria are beset with acts of gross misconduct, lack of internal democracy, blackmail, and indiscipline. Their act ranges from disobedience to the party’s constitution, to infighting among party leaders and their hangers-on. Take for instance, the political wars between and among governors and their deputies, the legislature and the executive, godfathers and their god sons, political dynasties, state and Abuja politicians among others.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1. To understand the impact of security challenges in Nigeria national development
2. To understand the relationship between security challenges and Nigeria national development
1.4 Research questions
1. What is the impact of security challenges in Nigeria national development
2. What is the relationship between security challenges and Nigeria national development
1.5 Research hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between security challenges and Nigeria national development
H1: There is a relationship between security challenges and Nigeria national development
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