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SOCIAL ECOLOGY AND EFFECT OF CRIMINAL VICTIMIZATION ON THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY
The essence of the criminological study is to deal with all related issues of crime and criminality in other to provide a lasting solution to an unending problem of crime in the society. For sociologist to be able to come closer to the above reality in the society, it is very pertinent for us to expose all the related matters that have to do with crime in the society, but however, the trend that has characterized the development of criminology has been nurtured on a faulty foundation; such a foundation has been characterized by a onedimensional approach to the study of criminal phenomenon. This has manifested clearly in the development of criminological theories raging from demonological explanation down through biopsychological to the socio-cultural forces that produce the individual offender or the situation of crime and to the radical or even the Marxist perspectives one common theme characterized them all. Whenever there is crime problem, intellectuals and policy maker are quick to ask what can be done to the criminals or the circumstances event that precipitate such criminality. Nobody or little care to ask about the victim and his circumstances. Much of the intellectuals’ energy expended in the course of development of criminology as a field of study has largely been concentrated upon issues centering on crime, criminal law and the criminal offender. However, the total neglect of the victim of crime in the dormant of crime has call for concern. The paper examined the social ecology and effects of criminal victimization on both the individual and society at large. The paper basically used secondary sources of data to examine how a socio demographic variable exposes individuals and society to victimization as well as the effects. At the end of the study, the paper discover that both individual victim and society are affected by socio ecological condition that prompt the venerability of crime and its effects, as such the study recommend urgent attention by the government and cooperate body in the areas of support programmed for the victims of crime, The criminal justice system should be restructured in such a way that, the victim will be given due recognition, the government should enact laws which will give the victims of crime right to actively participate in the criminal proceeding of their case in court. The victim should be adequately compensated base on the gravity of pain incurred in the cause of the crime committed either by the criminal or the government. Above all, the society should also be protected from becoming vulnerable to crime in the area of crime prevention through strengthening the security agencies in combating crime and criminality.
Keywords: social ecology, effect of crime, victimology