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DIFFERENT STRATEGIES OF TEACHING HISTORY FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background to the Study
Research on teaching strategies has for long been of interest to educationists. However, some studies have been carried out on certain aspects of the programme but have not investigated the academic performance of students in Nursery and Primary level of education in the use of some specific teaching strategies.
Research evidence shows that the challenges confronting the nursery and secondary school teachers are basically on the strategies of imparting the knowledge. It was argued by Adufe (2008) that teaching is based on strategies which at the long run bring about effective teaching.
Teaching, according to Oladipo and Ayeni (2000) involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. (Brown, 1997). It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn.
Instruction is the transmission to the learner and the acquisition by him on specific skills, information, knowledge or other established data. The mode of instruction or teaching applied in achieving these objectives is referred to as method. Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either nursery or primary education uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.
Research evidence shows that the major problem in the nursery and secondary schools is the method of imparting knowledge. To this Adepoju (2006) citing Kernest and Levin (1973) revealed the difficulties children of some ages (usually nursery and primary level) encountered when they are instructed using verbal approach. This is also confirmed as the study carried out in Nigeria by Busari (1991) revealed that the method presently employed in teaching, in most of our public secondary schools is inadequate or not effective.
It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many strategies of teaching exist in education and these strategies are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge.
However, the success in the use of any method differs as a result of an intelligent analysis of the objectives, the students in class, the curriculum content or the type of subject matter.
Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out.
Every profession has a method or set of strategies it employs to disseminate its intent to the young ones waiting to enter the profession. Any discussion on teaching methodologies must take cognizance of the whole teaching process. In an effort to transmit knowledge to learners, a teacher adopts or employs some strategies, techniques, means or measures.
This means or measures adopted by a teacher to transfer knowledge to learners is known as ‘method’. A method then is defined as the overall strategies, processes, means and techniques employed by a teacher to enable him achieve his objectives.
Given the over-abundance of supply of strategies, teachers are still faced with the problems of choice. We make choice simply because we cannot use one method in virtually all situations. Many strategies of teaching exist in education. All these strategies are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge.
Factors Determining Teaching Strategies
The Method must be right for the Learners: Some teachers consider the selection of method as an area where they have exclusive monopoly. This conception is wrong as their selection of method would affect their learners.
Learners’ interest, age, level and weaknesses should guide the selection of the relevance method. For instance, it would be wrong of a teacher to impose the use of discussion method on any category of learners that have speech deficiency.
The method must be also right to the teacher: Every Teacher is a unique personality with distinct behaviour. Some teachers may function well in certain condition and situations while others may flop significantly under similar condition. For instance, some teachers are intrinsically motivated while some are extrinsically motivated.
The Method should be best for the Subject Matter: By subject matter, we mean the topic to be taught. No matter how good a strategy of teaching is, if the method is not in line with the topic, little or no success will be achieved.
The Strategy must be right for the Resources Available: By resources we mean the instructional aids or materials. The decision of a teacher to use a particular text or a reference material hinges on the availability of the text.
Adesanya (2006) also submitted some basic criteria which must be considered before the selection of any teaching strategies.
Time Allocated: Time allocated for the subject on the timetable should be a guide in the selection of teaching strategies. She further explains that a teacher who has a limited time may want to favour lecture method because of it attributes. However, lecture method is not applicable in teaching the foundational classes.
Also, Ckenzie, et al (1980) in Adesanya (2006) argues that the objectives of the teacher should also be considered before the selection of any method. This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method.
As a result of these factors, it is advisable that a skillful teacher in nursery and primary level of education should consider these factors when he/she needed to achieve his/her stated objectives.
It is however, sustained that various strategies of teaching exist but there is a distinctive difference between them. There are strategies used in higher education which virtually cannot be use in the lower level of education which nursery and primary education exist.
Nursery and primary education therefore, gives room for any method which will help in facilitating the teaching and learning of a teacher and also make the stated objectives achievable.
As a result of this, the study on the comparative study of some teaching strategies and its effects on the academic performance of students in nursery and secondary schools worth pursuing. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide evidence as to the nature of two basic teaching method virtually used in nursery and primary education (play way method and story telling method) and their distinctive approach towards the achievement of students in both nursery and secondary school level.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many strategies of teaching exist in education. All the strategies are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate method. Also the strategies used in teaching the young ones are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to:
Find out the factors needed to be considered before the selection of any teaching strategies
Analyse different strategies of teaching in terms of their advantages and disadvantages
Compare basically two different strategies of teaching and their effectiveness in classroom setting.
1.4 Research Questions
What are the factors needed to be considered before the selection of a particular teaching method?
Will the attitude and learning of students depend on these factors?
Is there any significant difference between the strategies of teaching in Nursery and Secondary schools?
What effects does play way method and story telling method have on the academic performance of students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will provide basis for effective teaching strategies by Nursery and Secondary school teachers to modify or reinforce students’ academic performance.
This study will focus mainly on two method of teaching: story telling and play way strategies. Moreover, their effectiveness in assisting students to learn in classroom situation will also be looked into. Although, the study is meant for all students in Ijebu-Ode Local Government, however, due to time and fund, the research will only be limited to some selected nursery and secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State.
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