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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HOTEL EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN RIVER STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Emotional intelligence is being smart with feelings. It requires tuning emotional data, making sense of that data, and integrating it into your decision making. Emotional intelligence is a new field of interest for individuals, organizations and the government. It is an art and process of being smart with feeling that will result into quality decision making. Over decades ago, especially in Nigeria, we never saw the importance of deeply understanding emotional make-up of ourselves talk less of others because it a difficult thing to do. People are divorced because they cannot manage their emotions. People quit their jobs for emotional reasons; they don’t like their boss, they don’t feel appreciated.
In corporations, teams and individuals fight internal wars because they cannot manage their emotions, they lack emphatic skills, and they lack team skills and group orientation.
When employees do not bring out their best, the reasons are simply emotional because they fear management, they feel lonely and isolated, and they feel stressed and exhausted. Employees resist change for emotional reasons, because they feel uncertain about their future and they do not trust management.
Organizations lose customers for emotional reasons. Customers leave because they are dissatisfied with the attitude exhibited by staff on handling their complaints. Organizations recruit the wrong people because their focus in more on professional skills rather than emotional and social skills of those they employ.
Business organization suffer big losses and most of them die because they focus on hard factors and bottom line results and forget the soft factors “people” and the emotions of those who create the results.
Understanding the importance of emotions in our everyday life could be the most difficult thing to do because emotions are attached to our everyday life so closely and routinely. It would be probably organizations are made up all sorts of individuals.
We have in one way or the other experienced how emotions can be challenging and delightful. The trick here is to be smart with feelings and emotional intelligence (EI) is the essential ingredient to do so; a learnable set of practical life skills that make a tremendous different at the work place.
The basic principle of Emotional Intelligence is that caring relationship is the foundation of all genuine learning. Emotional intelligence provides the bedrock for the development of a large number of competencies that have helped people perform more effectively. Emotional intelligence has emerged as a set of skills, learning and understanding it, is considered to be the most effective means to enhance skills related to Emotional Intelligence.
The most distant roots of Emotional Intelligence can be traced back to Darwin’s early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival second adaption. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of Intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and Problem-Solving several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E.L. Thorndike used the term Social Intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.
Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligence behaviour, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors. In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligence introduced the idea of Multiple Intelligence which includes both Interpersonal Intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal Intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner’s view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes.
The first use of the term “Emotional Intelligence” is usually attributed to Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, a study of emotion: Developing emotional intelligence from 1985. However, prior to this, the term “emotional intelligence” had appeared in Leuner (1966). Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Dr. Peter Salovey of Yale and Dr. John Mayer of the University of Hampshire (1990), and Daniel Goleman (1995).
As a result of the growing acknowledgement of professional on the importance and relevance of emotions of work outcomes, the research on the topic continued to gain momentum, but it wasn’t until the publication of Daniel Goleman’s best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter More Than IQ that the term became widely popularized. Namely Gibbs’ 1995 Time magazine EI. Thereafter, articles on EI began to appear with increasing frequency across a wide range of academic and other outlets such as organizations.
Emotional intelligence and social skills are necessary for hotel manager s, supervisors and staff who desire to be effective in the workplace. Emotional intelligence as viewed by Goleman (1995) is more important than IQ in predicting success in life often times the challenge is that many people fear change: they may have fixed ideas about how the world operates (the business world).
For too long, organization has focused solely on the management processes of planning, staffing, directing, controlling although these process are very important but there is need to effectively understand Emotional Intelligence as it has to do with competency in perceiving oneself and others. It can be characterized as having abilities such as being able to motivate one and persist in the face of frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratification; to regulate one’s moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathize and to hope (Goleman, 1995).
The key element of all aspects of emotional intelligence is learning how to be emotionally intelligent is not simply an issue for management alone but is should benefits all members of the organization because they enhance interpersonal relationship skills; in their moods, temperaments, motivations and intentions, as well as truly understanding one’s own range of emotions.
The organization and its environment operate in a ‘real world” workforce in this century should be focused on new definitions of leadership, team building strategies, and self-management, which are all aspects of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent employees create a healthier and more productive workforce. Employers should enable employees realize their full potential because when individual gain self-realization, they are better able to contribute to the organization and to the growth of others in that same organization.
Today’s organization is faced with an increasingly diverse surge in technologies and expanding opportunities and as such understanding of one’s self and others will positively affect the growth of any organization.
Emotions can be positive and negative. Positive emotions are a part of everyday life so also is negative emotions. Sometimes certain positive emotions are experienced more intensely than the other; at other times, it may not be appropriate or even adaptively useful to feel adaptively useful to feel positive emotions at all. What accounts for knowing when positive emotions are appropriate and when they are not and how to utilize them in one’s life is the focal point of this study.
Through experience of positive emotions, people transform themselves, become more creative, knowledgeable, socially, integrated and healthy individuals. According to the framework of Emotional Intelligence, one must be competent at understanding his/her emotions both positive and negative, be able to process emotional information accurately and efficiently, and have the insight to skillfully use one’s emotions to solve problems, make plans, and achieve in one’s life (Salovey & Mayer, 1998-90).
Emotional intelligence requires that we learn to acknowledge and understanding feelings in ourselves and others and that we appropriately respond to them, creatively applying the energy of the emotions to our daily life, work and relationship. Emotional intelligence is demonstrated by tolerance, empathy and compassion for others; the ability to verbalize feelings accurately and with integrity; and the resilience to bounce back from emotional upsets. It is the ability to be a deeply feeling, authentic human being, no matter what life brings, no matter what challenges and opportunities we face.
In this rapidly changing world, organizations must be well versed in many skills to help them adjust to the changes taking place in the world and to produce more; meeting the challenges of the external and internal environment skills such as honesty, integrity, teamwork, friendliness, dedication, effort, caring initiative, sense of humour, patience, responsibility to organization, flexibility, problem, solving, curiosity, courage, creativity, emotional intelligence, etc. are necessary for productivity in any business organization.
Thus organization cannot hope to achieve long term growth and survival if they neglect the people issues. Organization that will succeed in this era will be those who consistently focus on their human capital and know the importance of “Putting People First”. Their actions are emotionally intelligent.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Hotel manager s need to manifest their vision through the alignment of individual and team behaviour in an emotionally intelligent climate of low conflict and open engagement. This will enhance the synergy to achieve maximum productivity. If only management will improve employee and team cooperation, then productivity will increase drastically. Increase productivity is achieved thus:
Identification and alignment of organizational values with a common vision in the workplace, collaboration helps individuals work together to maximize productivity that will benefit the whole organization.
Communication skill helps to produce meaningful engagement and bring new enthusiasm to efforts. This readily translates into enhanced performance/productivity.
Tap into the amazing variety of skills, knowledge, perspectives, learning styles, relationship, and visions that each individual can contribute, integrate and strength employee performance .
Individuals need to dialogue, listen, and reflect on their work processes to reinforce what is already working and improve on what isn’t working yet.
As management students, practitioner and employees who have had opportunity to be in business organization, it becomes clearer every day to us that the business world in Nigeria is not as intelligent emotionally when compared with her contemporaries out there e.g. we find out the norm in our local business world as dishonesty, rudeness, uncooperative, and impulsiveness. Management and employees are not sensitive to the feelings of others. Rudimental values of respect, honesty, kindness, and lawfulness are gone. We lack emotional skills: impulses are bad to control where and when it would be adaptive to do so; we act out our feelings without awareness of the feelings. We lack personal organizational and basic organization citizenship skills (obligations to other members of the organization, interpersonal skills).
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Productivity is an act of adding value in the activities performed at all levels of management in the organization, i.e. ensuring that all activities in the organization are worthwhile and produce more value than cost. Poor productivity damages relationship among team players because the lack of desired results often leads to negative emotions, moods and reactions: frustration, blame, conflict (internal wars). Management at all level should concentrate more on most valued asset “people” and how to effectively manage them rather than laying so much emphasis on system, technology etc.
There is need for the right type of values and attitude for the survival of individual in organizations which will at the end of the day result in productivity i.e.
- Training of the mind in the understanding the world around;
- The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the productivity of the business organization and its environ;
- Shared responsibility for the common good of the society, respect for the dignity of labour (Adewole, 1988; Eshier & Ntukidem, 2003).
Based on the above, the researcher intends to breach the gap existing between job satisfaction and productivity, understanding of one’s self and others by enhancing and fostering emotional intelligence.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Success used to be measured by what we knew or how smart we were but today; it is how we handle ourselves and our relationships. In relation to the issues raised under the statement of the problem and various questions beclouding the mind the or the researcher, there are questions which have been raised here. The intention of the researcher is to X-ray the foundation of the elucidated issues and if possible proffer solutions to them. The following are question to be considered in this work.
1. Is emotional intelligence of paramount importance to an organization?
2. Does emotional intelligence enhance individual productivity?
3. Can hotel hotel manager s effectively use emotional intelligent data in decision making?
4. Does an organization where emotional intelligent is practiced produce more than those without?
5. What factors militate against employee performance ?
6. How is emotional intelligence recognized?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H01: There is no significant difference between emotional intelligence and hotel employee performance.
H02: There will be no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and hotel employee performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study arose from organization’s inability to understand the emotional swings of staff and how to manage such changes to enhance productivity; research shows that for jobs of all kinds, emotional intelligence is twice as importance as IQ plus technical skills. Emotional intelligence is more than 85% of what sets star performs from the average. The higher the level of a job’s complexity and authority, the greater the impact of outstanding performance on the bottom line. Top hotel managers can add or destroy huge economic value and the higher the level, the higher the leverage so the higher the impact. We are talking about “hard” results such as improved profitability from higher productivity, increased sales and lowered costs as well as “softer” results as increased morale and motivation, greater cooperation, lower turnover and loss of talent.
It believed that this study will provide adequate background information on the effect of emotional intelligence on employee performance . It will also be of immense benefit to all team players in organizations; it will be an eye opener to organizational to make emotional intelligence a part of organizational activities and where necessary, train staff on it. Lastly, it will be of help to students, individuals who may want to know more on the effect of emotional intelligence on employee performance .
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers hotels in rivers state
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this model, emotion refers to a feeling state (including physiological response and cognitions) that conveys information about relationships. For example, happiness is a feeling state that also conveys information about relationship typically, that one would like to join with others. Similarly, fear is a feeling state that corresponds to a relationship the urge to flee others.
In this model, intelligence refers to the capacity to reason validly about information.
Productivity is the average output produced by input (s), a combination of human and capital resource (known as Total Factor productivity).
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