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THE USE OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING HISTORY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
In Teaching and learning communication skills, we have a lot to choose from the world of technology: TV, CD Rom, Computers, C.A.L.L., the Internet, Electronic Dictionary, Email, Blogs and Audio o Cassettes, Power Point, Videos, DVD’s or VCD’s. The last two decades have witnessed a revolution due to onset of technology, and has changed the dynamics of educational institutes, and has also influenced the educational system and the way people interact and work in the society. This rapid rising and development of information technology has offered a better pattern to explore the new teaching model. Using audio visual to create a context to teach communication skill has its unique advantages. As a result technology plays a very important role in teaching communication skill. This paper tries to analyze the necessity of audio visual technology to communication skill teaching and also brings out the problems faced by using these technologies. It also aims to make History teachers aware of the strategies to use it in an effective manner.
1.1 Background of the study
The use of audio visual in industries has been extensive, as it has been effective inincreasing productivity and retention rates, where research has shown that peopleremember 20% of what they see, 40% of what they see and hear, but about 75%of what they see and hear and do simultaneously (Lindstrom, 1994). Audio visual is now permeating the educational system as a tool for effective teaching and
learning. With audio visual, the communication of information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective audio-visual medium for delivering information. Audio visual access to knowledge is one of the possibilities of information and communication technology that has tremendous impact on learning. The audio-visual media have emerged in a variety of resources, and equipment, which can be used to supplement or complement the teachers efforts in ensuring effective learning by students. It is recognized that conventional media technologies can no longer meet the needs of our teaching and learning processes; as a result they are being replaced by audio visual technology. This technology provides a learning environment that is self-paced, learner-controlled and individualized.
Audio visual is defined as the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audio ence. In other words, audio visual means “an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next” (Agnew, Kellerman and Meyer, 1996).
Reisman (1994) described audio visual as a ray of “computer-driven interactivecommunication system, which create, store, transmit and retrieve, textual, graphicand audio tory networks of information.
Audio visual could be interpreted as a combination of data carriers, for examplevideo, CD-ROM, floppy disks, Internet and software in which the possibility for aninteractive approach is offered (Smeets, 1996; Jager and Lokman, 1996).
Fetterman (1997) also viewed audio visual as those resources used for instructionthat include one or more media such as graphics, video, animation, image andsound in addition to textual information. He identified four important characteristics of audio visual as:
- Audio visual systems are integrated
- The information content must be represented digitally
- The interface to the final presentation of media.
The power of audio visual lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating themany senses of the audio ence. It is also interactive, enabling the end users of theapplication to control the content and flow of information. This has introducedimportant changes in the educational system and impact the way we communicateinformation to the learners (Neo and Neo, 2000).Ogunbote and Adesoye (2006) expressed that audio visual technology adds newdimension to learning experiences because concepts were easier to present andcomprehend when the words are complemented with images and animations.
Stating further that it has been established that learners retain more when a varietyof senses are engaged in impacting knowledge; and the intensity of the experienceaids retention and recall by engaging social, emotional and intellectual senses.
The evolution of audio visual has made it very possible for learners to become more involved in their work. With audio visual technologies, they can create audio visual applications as part of their project requirements. This would make them active participant in their own learning process, instead of just being passive learners of the educational content.
Reinsman (1994) expressed that audio visual involves processing, storage, generation, manipulation and retention of audio visual system, and the resourcescould include text files, pictures, video, audio o, databases, archives, library catalogs, course notes, relevant links to various websites and easy access to search engines available on the Internet (Shuell and Ferber, 2001).
A study by Ubogu (2006) supports the view that audio visual resources facilitateaccess to all human knowledge, anytime, and anywhere in a friendly, multi-modal, efficient and effective way, by overcoming barriers of distance, language and culture, and by using multiple Internet-connect devices.
It is important to say that the use of audio visual technology has great significance in colleges, universities and research institutions in the Western countries. In these countries, the technology is being seen as a key player to development in all ramifications and essential component of education.
However, Babajide (2003) identified different types of audio visual communication, some of which include history hardware, history software, public address systems, slides, overhead projectors, opaque projectors, videos, cassettes, audio tapes, cassette recorders, flip, time sequence, stream charts, Diorama still motion pictures among others.
Audio visual in Education
Audio visual in Education has been extremely effective in teaching individuals a wide range of subjects. Audio visual is changing the way we communicate with each other. The way we send and receive messages is more effectively done and better comprehended.
While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more effectively. Using interactive CD-ROMs can be extremely effective in teaching students a wide variety of disciplines
A multi-sensory experience can be created for the audio ence, which in turn, elicits positive attitudes towards its application (Neo and Neo, 2001). Audio visual has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and result in shorter learning time (Ng and Komiya, 2000). On the part of the creator, designing audio-visual technology that is interactive and multi-sensory can be both a challenge and thrill. Audio-visual technology design offers new insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him or her to represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way (Agnew et al, 1996).
However, information technology application serves different purposes, such asknowledge sharing-portal, search engines, public administration, social service and business solution. Oshodi (1999) posits that awareness created towards the use of information and communication technology over the years is increasing in the classroom learning environment in the third world such that mere verbalization ofwords alone in the classroom to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educatelearner is futile. Omagbemi (2004) supporting this view expressed that access to audio visual information could stimulate changes and creates conductive learning environment and make learning more meaningful and responsive to the localized and specific needs of learners. There is certainly no lack of vision within educational communities concerning the central role and importance of ICT in the educational contexts of the future (Wood, 1993). That vision is shared by many and is accompanied by an acknowledgement that in order to realize this vision, three factors – access, training and targets must be provided (DFE, 1995; Simpson, Payne, Munro and Hughes, 1999). However, Hoffman (2001) suggested that successful implementation of ICTs need to address five interlocking frameworks for change namely the infrastructure, attitude, staff development, support (technical and administrative) and also sustainability and transferability.
The many kind of ICTs implemented at teaching and learning can be used in education for different purpose. For instance, some of them help students withtheir learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou, Sidiropoulos, Hatzis and Bousiou-Makridou, 2005).
In a study conducted by Simpson et al (1999) it was found that 64% of the teachereducator used ICT in the production of traditional resources of overhead transparencies and hand outs using standard word processing package; 27% indicated that they made use of and had experience with more powerful communication and presentation software; 32% incorporated the use of any ICT software into the lectures and only 24% made use of CDi resource materials. The study also revealed that in the tutors’ delivery of the courses, the students seldomexperienced demonstrations of the use of ICT as a teaching tool, that is, the tutorsseldom modelled its use through their own practices. However, these tutors gave lack of time to practice skills and the limited accessibility of some specialized facilities as constraint factors on their use of ICTs in teaching.
Studies have shown that, there are some factors that determine academics’ useand non-use of new technologies for teaching and learning in the advanced countries and these include, the needs of the learner, the characteristics and experiences of academics, the technology available, the environment within whichacademics work and how valuable they perceive the use of technology to be for teaching their students (Spotts, 1999; Jager and Lokman, 1999; Chun and Kwan,2005; and Munoz – Repiso and Tejedor, 2006) and the disciplinary context of which the academic is part (Rowley, Banwell, Childs, Gannon – heary, Londsdale,Urguhart and Armstrong, 2002). However, research have demonstrated that thereare disciplinary and subject differences in the way ICTs are being used and adopted in teaching and learning (Jager and Lokman, 1999; Jones, Zenois andGriffiths, 2004 and Eynon, 2006).
In developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, factors like lecturers’ attitude (Agbonlahor, (undated); Perception and use of media (Mabawonku, 1987); Perceived ease of use (Mabawonku, 1987; Ehikhamenor, 2005) quoted by Agbonlahor (undated); Perceived usefulness (Aghonlahor, (undated); Characteristics of lecturers (Gender, Age, Experience; Qualification etc); Adekunmisi, Ojo, Amusa and Obadeyi 2009; Training (Osunade, Philips and Ojo
(undated); Opinions of “significant others” and or peers in the university community (Agbonlahor, (undated); Availability of infrastructural facilities (Osunade et al (undated); Iloanusi and Osuagwu (undated); Cost of Purchasing (Ehikhamenor, 2005; Iloanusi and Osuagwu (undated); Management attitudes (Sife, Lwoga and Sanga, 2007); Use/knowledge of history (Anadarajan, Igbaria and Anakwe, 2002); Power supply (Osunade et al (Undated); Iloanusi and Osuagwu (Undated) amongst others.
- Statement of the Problem
There is an urgent need to improve the quality of education to bridge the gapbetween developed and developing nations, and audio visual instruction is considered as a necessary tool for this purpose. However, the presence of audio visual alone will not stimulate significant changes in a school. Teachers are important ingredient in the implementation of audio visual instruction in education.
Without the involvement of teachers, most students may not take advantage of allthe available potential benefits of audio visual on their own. Teachers need to actively participate in the use of audio visual facilities. They have to be trained in the use of audio visual and in its integration in the classroom activities to enhance thinking and creativity among students. They must also learn to facilitate and
encourage students by making them responsible for their own learning. Many ofthe current graduates were found to be lacking in creativity, communications skills, analytical and critical thinking and problem – solving skills (Teo and Wong, 2000;
In this study, attempts are therefore made at examining such issues as arepertinent to audio visual utilization for teaching in the Faculties of Arts and
Education, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
- Objectives of the Study
Specifically, the objectives of this study are to:
1. Determine the availability of audio-visual audio visual in the Faculties of Arts and Education for teaching and learning.
2. Determine the pattern and frequency of use of audio visual by lecturers in these selected faculties for teaching and learning
3. Investigate the adequacy of audio visual facilities for teaching and learning of history .
4. Identify factors, if any, which limit the use of audio visual by the teachers.
- Research Questions
The study is structured to provide answers to the following research questions:
1. How available are the audio-visual audio visual for teaching and learning in history ?
2. What is the pattern and frequency of use of the audio visual for teaching andlearning by the lecturers of the facility?
3. How adequate are the audio visual facilities for teaching and learning of history ?
4. What factors limit the use of audio visual by teachers of the subject?
- Objective of the Study
- To understand the meaning of audio visuals
- To understand the use of audiovisuals in teaching history in junior technical schools
- Research Hypothesis
H0: The application of audiovisuals does not have a significant positive impact in teaching history in junior technical schools in Oredo LGA, Edo state
H1: The application of audiovisuals have a significant positive impact in teaching history in junior technical schools in Oredo LGA, Edo state
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