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THE EFFECTS OF TWO TEACHING METHODS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Traditionally, the teaching in most Nigeria Senior secondary schools is dominated by a teacher-centered method (Zhenhui 2001, Wang & Farmer 2008). Several researchers have noted that eastern teachers of adults tend to emphasize knowledge, content, teacher-centered classrooms, and exam results while, concepts such as flexibility, problem solving, critical thinking and independent learning are not recognized (Boyle 2000, Zhenhui 2001, Adib-Hajbaghery 2005, Wang & Farmer 2008). As the teachers rely on lecture, most of Nigeria Senior secondary school students see knowledge as something to be transmitted by the teacher (Zhenhui 2001). Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Iranian students are often quiet, shy and uncommunicative in classrooms (Liu & Littlewood 1997, Adib-Hajbaghery, Salsali & Ahmadi 2004, Adib-Hajbaghery 2005, Wang & Farmer 2008). These claims are confirmed by Sato (1982), who compared the participation of Nigeria Seniorsecondary school students in the classroom interactions with that of non-Nigeria Seniorsecondary school students. Sato found that the Asians took fewer speaking turns than their non-Asian classmates. It has also been noted that Korean students prefer that the teacher be the authority (Harshbarger et al. 1986). Nigeria Seniorsecondary school students are reluctant to “stand out” by expressing their views or raising questions, particularly if this might be perceived as expressing public disagreement (Song 1995).
Some studies have also shown that most of the university teachers are not familiar with modern teaching methods (Stitt-Gohdes 2001, Farhadian et al. 2007) and traditional lectures are still the most popular instructional method in the universities (Benjamin 2002, John et al. 2007, Rahmani 2007, Saville 2009). According to Brown (2003), most of the university teachers have been taught in learning environments that were instructor centered, therefore, they teach in this way too. Factors such as simplicity of lecture presentation, its appropriateness for crowded classes, limitation of time and the massive amount of theoretical content which should be presented (Bligh 2000, Adib-Hajbaghery et al. 2004, Adib-Hajbaghery 2005, Farhadian et al. 2007) have also made the instructors to use lectures as the most popular teaching method.
Overly using of lecture method will induce a hidden curriculum that teaches students to be obedient, compliant and inexpressiveness and also will reduce their self-confidence (Espeland & Shanta 2001). Studies have shown that teacher-centered teaching methods are not appropriate to teach students in nursing or other fields that training involves context and gives it meaning (Caudron 2000). Some studies have also shown that nursing students prefer teaching methods with more student involvement (Salsali 2005, Abu-Moghli et al. 2005). Some conflicting results have also reported when academic investigators have compared the effects of lectures and more active teaching methods such (Perkins & Saris 2001, Qualters 2001, Hunt et al. 2003, Barnes & Blevins 2003, Yoder & Hochevar 2005, Riggio 2007, Saville 2009).
In a study by Yoder and Hochevar (2005) it was reported that student-led discussions not only produce favorable student performance, but also foster greater participation, self-confidence and leadership ability. Hunt et al. (2003) have also reported positive learning outcomes from team learning as compared to traditional lecture methods. In contrast to these findings, a study by Barnes and Blevins (2003) suggests that active, discussion-based methods are inferior to the lecture-based method. Some other researchers have also been compared the effects of lecture and other teaching methods like computer managed instruction (Halloran 1995), teaching in small groups (Salimi el al. 2007) technology-based instruction (Jeffries et al. 2003), and individual instruction (Coleman 2001) and reported that no significant differences were observed. A study by Qualters (2001) has also suggested that students do not favor active learning methods for the fear of not covering all of the material in the course, and anxiety about changing from traditional classroom expectations. Therefore, this question has been remained worldwide that which teaching method could be more appropriate in academic education especially for nursing students. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the effects of teacher traditional lectures, Socratic Method, and students lectures on anxiety, exam score and students? learning satisfaction. The results of this study could be helpful for the teachers worldwide and especially in the Asian region as they have similar academic structures with Iran, in which the present study was conducted.
1.2 1.2 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The classroom is the heart of any educational system. No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evolution, both of which are mainly carried out in the classroom. Most of the teaching methods take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary schools in the country. As rightly observed by Cohen and Manion (1983 p.221) “a careful attention to seating arrangement contributes as effectively as any other aspect of classroom management and control to overall success with a class subsequently”. Adesina (1990 p.13) also affirms that one potent index for evaluating educational standards and quality is an examination of the physical facilities available for learning experiences”.
The seating arrangement can make or mar any lesson. Ideally, in a secondary school, especially in a mixed ability grouping, as found in Nigeria schools, seats should be arranged in rows with a reasonable amount of space between them to allow for proper teacher-student and student-student interactions as well as allow for individual and group work (Cohen and Manion, 1983). To this end, the ratio of teacher to students should not exceed 1:30 or at most 40 judging by the size of the classrooms. But what one finds in many o these classes is between ratio 1: 50 and 1: 150 in certain cases.
This study was therefore interested in identifying the major problems caused by over-populated classes in Nigeria growing towns and cities with a view to making suggestions that could help to alleviate the problems. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to increase teaching methods across the board in order to sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions. In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it.
In settings where state mandates on maximum teaching methods are relaxed, policymakers need to bear in mind that the effect of any increase in teaching methods will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the NIGERIA. would reduce the teaching workforce by about 7 percent. If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in teaching methods might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing teaching methods.
The national policy on education revised in 2010 stipulates that the maximum teacher –student ratio is one teacher is to thirty students. The obvious reason for this standard is to ensure that the teacher not only controls the class but also to ensure that he understands the learning capabilities of each of the learner in the classroom. Ozochi (2008) affirms that there is a limit to which a teacher can effectively control, anything more than that according to him will affect the school objectives.
However, in most of our secondary schools today the teacher –student ration has gone far beyond the stipulation of the national policy on education. Students stay more than fifty in each class, seating arrangement altered, thereby making teaching and learning difficult. Educational planners in Nigeria have attributed the over bloated teaching methods due to the explosion of the population of children of school age. Recently the Enugu State Government through her agently spliced most of the secondary schools located within the metropolis in order perpherps to expel the agony of overcrowded classroom.
Physical health education, like all other health science is an activity based subject, a situation whereby the learner is exposed mainly to the practical learning process under the guide and supervision of a teacher. Maduagwu et al (1998) opines that effectiveness of a classroom management results when the teacher and student achieve the purpose of which either are together in a class under an overcrowded classroom environment like what obtains in most of our schools today it becomes pertinent to ask, how effective is teaching and learning particularly in subject area that requires close monitoring of the learner by the teacher.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
1. To evaluate the effect of two teaching methods on students academic achievement in Seniorsecondary schools.
2. To assess the level of performance of students on biology based on the teaching method adopted by the teachers.
3. To evaluate from the various teaching methods which one the student prefer most to other through the proper assessment students grade points on biology.
4. To find out whether the Seniorsecondary school students who take biology are motivated to learn the subject matter because of their teachers’ teaching styles. Thus, this study tried to answer the following questions:
What teaching style/s used by teachers that are most preferred by the biology students.
5. To know the level of the biology students’ attitude towards the subject.
6. To whether there is a relationship between students’ preferred teaching styles and their attitude towards biology subject.
7. To evaluate the significant difference of the students’ preferred teaching styles based on gender and race.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the effect of two teaching methods on students academic achievement in Seniorsecondary schools?
2. Can one assess the level of performance of students on biology based on the teaching method adopted by the teachers?
3. Is it possible to evaluate from the various teaching methods which one the student prefer most to other through the proper assessment students grade points on biology?
4. What is the level of the biology students’ attitude towards the subject?
5. Is there a relationship between students’ preferred teaching styles and their attitude towards biology subject?
6. Is there a significant difference of the students’ preferred teaching styles based on gender and race?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Two teaching methods has negative effect on students academic achievement in Seniorsecondary schools.
H1: Two teaching methods has positive effect on students academic achievement in Seniorsecondary schools.
H0: One cannot assess the level of performance of students on biology based on the teaching method adopted by the teachers.
H1: One can assess the level of performance of students on biology based on the teaching method adopted by the teachers.
H0: It is impossible to evaluate from the various teaching methods which one the student prefer most to other through the proper assessment students grade points on biology
H1: It is possible to evaluate from the various teaching methods which one the student prefer most to other through the proper assessment students grade points on biology.
H0: There is no significant difference of the students’ preferred teaching styles based on gender and race.
H1: There is a significant difference of the students’ preferred teaching styles based on gender and race.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The major concern of the study is two teaching methods and effective teaching
and learning of biology in the Seniorsecondary school usingselected Seniorsecondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State as a case study. This study should lend to awareness of studying problems of student of the school and prefer corrective measures. It is hoped that the students would be made to realize that learning involves skills perhaps better understanding of what learning is, may shape a learning attitude towards his fellow friends, schools, parents also provide knowledge and general interest for further studies in this area to the need to examine the learning comprehension skills of students with a view to identify the factors responsible for their academic performance. The study is also aimed at making the government realize that their efforts to improve the standard of education will continue to be a mirage if the teaching of learning among other learning skill is neglected in the school course outline. The study is delimited to the cause of poor study habits of high school student and its implication to teaching effectiveness. The investigation include the specific problem such as the profile of respondents the poor study habits of high school student: The effect of their poor study in teaching and learning process. What is the teaching could do to change or improve the student
poor study habits and any suggestion of teacher to improve the students poor study habits There are reason to consider that makes this study important to some groups of people like the teacher, school administrator the parents and education. Student this is because this investigation
may give them in sight concerning the cause and effect of the poor study habits of the student to the teaching and learning process to the result of this study may be very important to teaching
not only in the public school but even those in private sector the result may give these teacher some significant ideas on what they must in case they find some student having poor study habits What teachers should do is to find out the cause of such poor study habits of the students and then find for the mass necessary solution to the problems. The teacher after knowing they must talked to the parents about it so their parents could suppressive their weakness on their lessons at home
similarly the result of the study may have be significant to parents because through this they may known what to do to help improve or correct the poor study habits of their student to study their lesson in the night after supper instead of watching television or playing video games. The researchers believes that students, particularly Community primary school Nkwerre will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviours related to their studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness also gives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students considering that the college life is typically beset of developmental adjustment demands. School administrators like subject area coordinators, may also be guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning.
Teachers will also be help in understanding better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter.
Guidance and Counseling Centre will also be help by this study through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors affecting students study habits. This increased the understanding of the Guidance Counselors on the interplay of the variables studied in this research. Such knowledge is hoped to help the Guidance and Counseling practitioners towards the development and implementation of more effective programs in consideration of these variables. Students will be given information on how study affects their academic performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study habits among their co- education students.
The significance of the study, therefore is to identify the effect of classroom environment on the teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Ofu local government area. The findings will be of immense use in the counseling programme even for brilliant students to improve on their standard.. Biology is as important to a country as protein is to young ones. For better understanding and to keep them in function of science and technology it works as a vital device, the discipline acts as the vital role of an initiate to the much desired technological development needed for the national development. It has become an essential objective for the education of Biology to facilitate the students to build up abilities to distinguish the relation between Biology and the facts of life, and to recognize and realize the character of Biology performing in the human life. The performances of female and male students in Biology are different by inequalities in their physiological structures. Even though the majority of the researchers have found the better performance of boys than girls particularly in higher education, a small number of other researchers found that girls performance better than boys and during early education, a number of other researcher found no important difference. An analysis of some gender based studies that were done in the decade between 1985 and 1995 showed that there is a significant discrepancy in the literature in the disparity performance between girls and boys in the subject of Biology. The researchers noted that by means of the contradictory results and noteworthy procedural flaws observed, further experimental researches are required to explore the reality of gender bias in the classroom (Fennema and Sherman, 1978).
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on effect of two teaching methods on academic achievement of seniorsecondary school in biology.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. TIME: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. FINANCE: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. INFORMATION CONSTRAINTS: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private business organization and even government agencies. Teachers and students in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State find it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teaching: Teaching is a process of assisting a learner to acquire knowledge and skills or experiences that could foster effectiveness in the later age. Thus, once a child learns what he has been taught teaching is said to have taken place. During the teaching/learning process, the teacher has to adopt a particular method or methods to impact knowledge to the learners coupled with useful materials that could help a learner to learn.
Attitudes: Attitudes are defined as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975, p. 6). Lutz (1981, p. 234) defined attitudes as representing covert feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward an object, person, issue, or behavior. People learn attitudes over time by being in contact with the object directly (experience) or through receiving information about the object.
Main idea: The is the key or point that dominates the passage.
Word to word: Reading of every word of the passage one by one without any transition skill from one phrase to another.
Diagnosis: This is the investigation of the nature of the course and extent of the nature of the students’ strength and weakness.
Literal meaning: This involves ordinary meaning of words basic or usual meaning of a word or phrase.
Evaluation: This is the ability to read beyond the line. It involves critical assessment of the reader what he is reading.
Cognitive: Ability of knowing how to, knowing what and the ability of the reader to use experience.
Affective reading: Good reading and caring for materials.
Languages: A systematic means of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meaning.
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• Factors- one that actively contributes to an accomplishments,results, or process
• Develop- to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of
• Study Habits- manner which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson.
• Students- describe as one who directs zeal at a subject. Student isused for anyone who is learning.
• Factors- these refers to anything that affects study habits
• Develop- refers to fast or gradual changes in a range of time
• Study Habits- refers to the ways of studying on a particular subject
• XU Students- referring to all officially enrolled students of Community primary school Nkwerre.
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