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1.1 Background of the study

Modern technology is defined as the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audio ence. In other words, modern technology means “an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next” (Agnew, Kellerman and Meyer, 1996).

Reisman (1994) described modern technology as a ray of “computer-driven interactive communication system, which create, store, transmit and retrieve, textual, graphicand audio tory networks of information.

Modern technology could be interpreted as a combination of data carriers, for examplevideo, CD-ROM, floppy disks, Internet and software in which the possibility for aninteractive approach is offered (Smeets, 1996; Jager and Lokman, 1996).

Fetterman (1997) also viewed modern technology as those resources used for instructionthat include one or more media such as graphics, video, animation, image andsound in addition to textual information. He identified four important characteristics of modern technology as:

  • Modern technology systems are integrated
  • The information content must be represented digitally
  • The interface to the final presentation of media.

The power of modern technology lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating themany senses of the audio ence. It is also interactive, enabling the end users of theapplication to control the content and flow of information. This has introducedimportant changes in the educational system and impact the way we communicateinformation to the learners (Neo and Neo, 2000).Ogunbote and Adesoye (2006) expressed that modern technology technology adds newdimension to learning experiences because concepts were easier to present andcomprehend when the words are complemented with images and animations.

Stating further that it has been established that learners retain more when a varietyof senses are engaged in impacting knowledge; and the intensity of the experienceaids retention and recall by engaging social, emotional and intellectual senses.

The evolution of modern technology has made it very possible for learners to become more involved in their work. With modern technology technologies, they can create modern technology applications as part of their project requirements. This would make them active participant in their own learning process, instead of just being passive learners of the educational content.

Reinsman (1994) expressed that modern technology involves processing, storage, generation, manipulation and retention of modern technology system, and the resourcescould include text files, pictures, video, audio o, databases, archives, library catalogs, course notes, relevant links to various websites and easy access to search engines available on the Internet (Shuell and Ferber, 2001).

A study by Ubogu (2006) supports the view that modern technology resources facilitateaccess to all human knowledge, anytime, and anywhere in a friendly, multi-modal, efficient and effective way, by overcoming barriers of distance, language and culture, and by using multiple Internet-connect devices.

It is important to say that the use of modern technology technology has great significancein colleges, universities and research institutions in the Western countries. In thesecountries, the technology is being seen as a key player to development in allramifications and essential component of education.

However, Babajide (2003) identified different types of modern technology communication, some of which include business education hardware, business education software, public address systems, slides, overhead projectors, opaque projectors, videos, cassettes, audio tapes, cassette recorders, flip, time sequence, stream charts, Diorama still motion pictures among others.

Modern technology in Education

Modern technology in Education has been extremely effective in teaching individuals a wide range of subjects. Modern technology is changing the way we communicate with each other. The way we send and receive messages is more effectively done and better comprehended.

While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more effectively. Using interactive CD-ROMs can be extremely effective in teaching students a wide variety of disciplines, most notably languages and music.

A multi-sensory experience can be created for the audio ence, which in turn, elicits positive attitudes towards its application (Neo and Neo, 2001). Modern technology has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and result in shorter learning time (Ng and Komiya, 2000). On the part of the creator, designing amodern technology application that is interactive and multi-sensory can be both a challenge and thrill. Modern technology application design offers new insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him or her to represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way (Agnew et al, 1996).

However, information technology application serves different purposes, such asknowledge sharing-portal, search engines, public administration, social service and business solution. Oshodi (1999) posits that awareness created towards the use of information and communication technology over the years is increasing in the classroom learning environment in the third world such that mere verbalization ofwords alone in the classroom to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educatelearner is futile. Omagbemi (2004) supporting this view expressed that access to modern technology information could stimulate changes and creates conductive learning environment and make learning more meaningful and responsive to the localized and specific needs of learners. There is certainly no lack of vision within educational communities concerning the central role and importance of ICT in the educational contexts of the future (Wood, 1993). That vision is shared by many and is accompanied by an acknowledgement that in order to realize this vision, three factors – access, training and targets must be provided (DFE, 1995; Simpson, Payne, Munro and Hughes, 1999). However, Hoffman (2001) suggested that successful implementation of ICTs need to address five interlocking frameworks for change namely the infrastructure, attitude, staff development, support (technical and administrative) and also sustainability and transferability.

The many kind of ICTs implemented at teaching and learning can be used in education for different purpose. For instance, some of them help students withtheir learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou, Sidiropoulos, Hatzis and Bousiou-Makridou, 2005).

In a study conducted by Simpson et al (1999) it was found that 64% of the teachereducator used ICT in the production of traditional resources of overhead transparencies and hand outs using standard word processing package; 27% indicated that they made use of and had experience with more powerful communication and presentation software; 32% incorporated the use of any ICT software into the lectures and only 24% made use of CDi resource materials. The study also revealed that in the tutors’ delivery of the courses, the students seldomexperienced demonstrations of the use of ICT as a teaching tool, that is, the tutorsseldom modelled its use through their own practices. However, these tutors gave lack of time to practice skills and the limited accessibility of some specialized facilities as constraint factors on their use of ICTs in teaching.

Studies have shown that, there are some factors that determine academics’ useand non-use of new technologies for teaching and learning in the advanced countries and these include, the needs of the learner, the characteristics and experiences of academics, the technology available, the environment within whichacademics work and how valuable they perceive the use of technology to be for teaching their students (Spotts, 1999; Jager and Lokman, 1999; Chun and Kwan,2005; and Munoz – Repiso and Tejedor, 2006) and the disciplinary context of which the academic is part (Rowley, Banwell, Childs, Gannon – heary, Londsdale,Urguhart and Armstrong, 2002). However, research have demonstrated that thereare disciplinary and subject differences in the way ICTs are being used and adopted in teaching and learning (Jager and Lokman, 1999; Jones, Zenois andGriffiths, 2004 and Eynon, 2006).

In developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, factors like lecturers’ attitude (Agbonlahor, (undated); Perception and use of media (Mabawonku, 1987); Perceived ease of use (Mabawonku, 1987; Ehikhamenor, 2005) quoted by Agbonlahor (undated); Perceived usefulness (Aghonlahor, (undated); Characteristics of lecturers (Gender, Age, Experience; Qualification etc); Adekunmisi, Ojo, Amusa and Obadeyi 2009; Training (Osunade, Philips and Ojo

(undated); Opinions of “significant others” and or peers in the university community (Agbonlahor, (undated); Availability of infrastructural facilities (Osunade et al (undated); Iloanusi and Osuagwu (undated); Cost of Purchasing (Ehikhamenor, 2005; Iloanusi and Osuagwu (undated); Management attitudes (Sife, Lwoga and Sanga, 2007); Use/knowledge of business education(Anadarajan, Igbaria and Anakwe, 2002); Power supply (Osunade et al (Undated); Iloanusi and Osuagwu (Undated) amongst others.

  1.  Statement of the Problem

There is an urgent need to improve the quality of education to bridge the gapbetween developed and developing nations, and modern technology instruction is considered as a necessary tool for this purpose. However, the presence of modern technology alone will not stimulate significant changes in a school. Teachers are important ingredient in the implementation of modern technology instruction in education.

Without the involvement of teachers, most students may not take advantage of allthe available potential benefits of modern technology on their own. Teachers need to actively participate in the use of modern technology facilities. They have to be trained in the use of modern technology and in its integration in the classroom activities to enhance thinking and creativity among students. They must also learn to facilitate and

encourage students by making them responsible for their own learning. Many ofthe current graduates were found to be lacking in creativity, communications skills, analytical and critical thinking and problem – solving skills (Teo and Wong, 2000;

Tan, 2000).

In this study, attempts are therefore made at examining such issues as arepertinent to modern technology utilization for teaching in the Faculties of Arts and

Education, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  1.  Objectives of the Study

Specifically, the objectives of this study are to:

1. Determine the availability of instructional modern technology in the Faculties of Arts and Education for teaching and learning.

2. Determine the pattern and frequency of use of modern technology by lecturers in these selected faculties for teaching and learning

3. Investigate the adequacy of modern technology facilities for teaching and learning of business education.

4. Identify factors, if any, which limit the use of modern technology by the teachers.

  1. Research Questions

The study is structured to provide answers to the following research questions:

1. How available are the instructional modern technology for teaching and learning in business education?

2. What is the pattern and frequency of use of the modern technology for teaching andlearning by the lecturers of the facility?

3. How adequate are the modern technology facilities for teaching and learning of business education?

4. What factors limit the use of modern technology by teachers of the subject?

  1.  Objective of the Study
  2. To understand the meaning of modern technologys
  3. To understand the use of modern technologys in teaching business education in junior secondary schools
    1.  Research Hypothesis

H0: The application of modern technologys does not have a significant positive impact in teaching business education in junior secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo state

H1: The application of modern technologys have a significant positive impact in teaching business education in junior secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo state


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