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WOMEN SUBJUGATION IN SOURTHERN NIGERIA: A STAGE DRAMATIZATION OF THE WIVES REVOLT BY J.P. CLARK
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents
- purpose of the study
- significance of the study
- scope and limitations of the study
- justification of the study
- research methodology
- Definition of terms.
2.1 literature review
3.1 the director
3.2 theories of directing
3.3 the director’s media
3.4 the director’s concept
3.5 the director’s approach
3.6 the playwright
3.7 synopsis of the paly
3.12 character analysis
3.13 plot structure
4.1 play production process
4.2 play selection
4.4 Audition and casting
4.6 blocking and movement
4.7 costume and make-up
4.10 stage orientation
5.1 conclusion and recommendations work cited
The Nigeria cultural arena seems to have no space for women performers, hence, women are subjected to servitude and disempowerment by their male Counterpart. The paly ‘’The Wives Rovolt Written by J.P. Clark affords the author to artistically tap the concepts of the paly for the purpose of freeing women from the social-economic, political and cultural bondage.
As a student Artistic director, and author the project, I have attempted here to recommend the liberation of women and to place them in their rightful position as their male counterparts.
The wive’s revolt by J.P. Clark concern’s the Erhuwaren people who have just benefited from some reparation paid by the oil company in the village. The men of the community decide to share the money into (3) three equal parts, one to the elders, next to the men in all their age groups and the least to the women. Their decision results to a revolt by the women. Again the women revolts as a result of accusation of witchcraft levied against them by their opposite sex. The later alleged the former employ goals harass them and as such banished all goats from the community through a law, which empowered the men to kill any goat at sight. The law generates resentment among the women against the men. Since the accusers could not different between the bewitched goat and harmless ones. The women unable to withstand such negativism in words and action from the men they stage a walk out on their husbands leaving only the retied old folks, unmarried girls and their little children behind. Due to loneliness, their men were caught at hand and plead for their wives return.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to achieve a stage dramatization of the work The Wives Revolt by J. P. Clark, as my Directing projecting through the characters played showing the women subjugation in Southern Nigeria to the audience. The wives Revolt therefore represents a stance in social drama which fights and rebels against the ills the people would want eradicated from the society. Most plays from East and Southern Africa highlight the ideology of revolt. In Kenya for example, Ngugi wa Thiong’s argues for this kind of theatre that fight for change the rebellion. To him as an appreciable Theatre,
Without masking mistakes and weakness gives people change and urges them to higher resolves in their struggle for total liberation (Preface to Kmathis, 1977).
‘’The Wives’Revolt’’ is peopled by insurgent women as well. Although only Koko was the one visible we encounter a band of wives seeking for change from the unjust stance of their husband and elders. In Koko’s lines as she asset:
Koko-the law you passed is bad, unfair and discriminatory, being directed against women because of our stance. We will not accept it (P. 11).
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is to educate the audience through this work, The wives revolt by J. P clark on stage dramatization and also to entertain, though this brand of art is not merely for entertainment but is greatly didactic as well as one of commitment to emphasize on the writer’s ideological theatre employ their arts as a means of struggling for the goals and as privations the people. In as much as some of drama are based on change and revolt, we have some socio-economic, political and traditional concept at the background which will highlight the various experiences and ideological stand points of the writers, from maxism, feminision to play of other ideology commitment.
Also, our history is largely oral with its sorry vulnerability to cruel and mischievous falsification and embellishment by some self chieftains, who make pastime of such in our communities, I felt obliged to begin to write it pure so that the present and future generations shall be saved from being tossed about and in the process to keep our bearing. It is hoped this research shall be of immense significance to many.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
To avoid ambiguities and lack of focus, this work in terms of scope, deal with the women subjugation in southern Nigeria. The play highlights the female cause to a great extent. The play of revolt therefore represents a stance in social dramas which fights and rebels against ills of the people would want to eradicate from the society.
The research significantly evaluates the rights and also the future lines of development for women posterity. In terms of limitations, the obvious problem of shortage of enough research materials on women human right seriously, affected the work. There were on limitations, casting and crew management as well as ensuring that the artistic rehearsal and perform in the most friendly atmosphere which theatre discipline requires.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The play The wives Revolt by J.P. Clark is certainly a comment on women subjugation in southern Nigeria and economic disempowerment of women and finally, insatiability of men. It is full with moral lessons using the case of one man to serve as a deterrent so that many others that abound in society will learn in good time to avoid such vices.
Nigerian women need total social and economic liberation through empowerment. Therefore the work justifies the call for such improvement. Although only Koko the wife of the town crier Okoro was visible as a women in the play, we encounter a band of the wives seeking a change from the unjust stance of their husband and elders. The play thus teaches that no one condition of life is permanent as there are bound to be changes be it negative or position man must learn to adjust to the different situation, as to balance it, and that women should therefore wake up to fight for justice to be done on equal rights not to be seen by men as mannequins or weak objects. Thus, the play have greatest relevance of justifications in present which the women can also stand the chance of a president to her country. As many women’s right activist have argued that the division of men and women into public and private sphere respectively is an arbitrary convention without justification.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The mode of research for this work took basically two sources, which will be further classified into distinctive categories.
- Primary sources
- Secondary sources
The primary source contains direct accounts given to me by respected persons who are knowledgeable as custodians, in Delta state tradition and culture. While the secondary sources are derived form the volumes of published books, journals, play text, and later took verbal from such as interview periodicals and other previously written findings on the subject matter of this research. Also in the Modern Language Association (M.L.A) reference. Style in applied here.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
To facilitate understanding of the subject matter for the reader of this project, there is need to define some of the professional terms used…
Stage dramatization: is the action on stage through the use of body movement, gestures, song, dance and pantomime. This could be seen as show through the movements giving to them by the director as the achieve the project through the stage dramatization, by telling the story or narrating a play through the actor play on stage to the audience.
Directing: is the scenic interpretation of a play by an artistic director in cooperation with other artistic personnel in the theatre and other artistic elements. Such as light, music, costume and make-up, set design, props and theatre management to achieve beauty. Directing celebrates the rhythms of life on stage as significantly as possible. It is also the blending of the auditory and visual elements of production into artistic whole.
Subjugation: This could be seen as oppression of one’s authority over you to gain possession or domination. The Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary defines it thus: to overcome of defeat, to gain control over (p. 1190).
A universal definition accepts subjugation as any formalized action aimed at achieving a desired effect.
Culture: According to anthropologist, is one of the characteristics that differentiates human beings from other creatures? It integrates a broad spectrum of meaning which cuts across every human activity. In Taylor’s view, culture is ‘’that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, law, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. ‘’this is also the idea expressed by B. H. Kato when he Opines that
Culture is the totality of knowledge and behaviour, ideas and objects, that constitutes the common heritage of a society, the whole system of living made uo of what society knows and does.
Culture, therefore, are mechanisms such as language, customs, beliefs, practices, which are intended to govern and regulate personal and interpersonal behaviour, the relationship between individual and society on one hand, and with the deities on the other this is to say that culture is the total way of life of any human group or community.
Revolt: This is to how violent resistance to an oppressing authority, by, revolting against a bad law passed as to express protest. E.g Attahiru a drama of resistance or Jihad against the British determination of sale over, the old northern Nigeria. Citing Shehu U. A. Shagari in Attahiru on his note.
He gallantly led the patriotic forces of resistance against British colonial domination and oppression and fought to the very end in pitched battle against the foreign invaders at Burmi near Gombe (p-10)
Again Revolt also implies the need to erase any sexual injustice and greed in the society whether they affect men or women only. In the wive’s Revolt Idama laments the women’s’ action.
Our wives have gone; they have walked out on us; they have emigrated in protest against our law. (p;19).
This show the unjust laws that have been pronounced by the elders and chiefs of the community as they say, as a women you are not expected to walk to a table where the elders ate being gathered having their discussion unless one is being invited for an investigation like in Guilermo Oyono-Mbia’s Three suitors on Husband when Abssolo was talking to is grand daughter Julieette, as he asset.
ABESSOLO: your Opinion? She wants to be asked her opinion! Since when do women speak in mvoutessi? Who teaches you girls of today such disgraceful behaviour? Why are you trying to have a say in every matter?… (p.15).
This has been all that female sex has been fighting against which has led to their Revolt.
Chieftaincy: This refers to the domain or jurisdiction of a chief. The chief exercises true political authority through which the whole community is united.
The existence of a chief implies that, the society is clearly hierarchiecised is hierarchal of leadership exist. The powers of the chiefs are vast because they exercise control over the people’s productive activities as the could distribute land, control surplus produced by their subjects, and control the labour of their people.
Tradition: acc to Oxford Advanced Leaners Dictionary:
It is the passing of beliefs or customs from one generation to the next: By tradition people play practical Joke on 1st April (p1267)
This can also be seen my local Opobo town we celebrate a masquerade clled Nwa Otam every 25th Christmas and 1st January but if it falls on a Sunday it will be shifted because Sunday is holy day.
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