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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SPORTS(FOOTBALL) VALUE CHAIN AS A MEDIUM TO IMPROVE RESOURCES, CAREERS AND INDUSTRY
1.1 Background of the study
Mankind has begun to store information long time ago. The origin of the database goes back to the times when libraries, government agencies, business and health records were kept before computers invention. Once people perceive that they need tools to store data and protect data files for retrieval later, they sought ways to index, store and retrieve data. In ancient times, detailed database systems were developed for government offices, libraries, hospitals and business organizations. The concepts and principles used in the construction of these systems are still used today. From ancient times to relational and objective relational systems today, database technology has passed over several generations and the historical development process has been quite impressive. With the development of computers, the database world has changed rapidly and databases have become an easy, cost-effective and less space-consuming tool. (Berg, Seymour, & Goel, 2012). Today’s managers can obtain meaningful information by comparing and analysing the data they obtain with various computer-based software. According Vincent (2009) database is; a collection of logically related records or files that are integrated into a common repository and provide data for one or more uses.
Database management systems were invented in the 1960s to support hierarchical databases. The first systems (alphabetical, numerical or chronological) are arranged in order to access data indexes directly or randomly, we had to wait for development of data storage devices. Among the best known data-based management systems at that time were IBM Information Management System and CA Integrated Database Management System (Bastien, 2019). In the 1970s, database management models such as the “Entity-Relationship Model” developed by Pin and Chen (1976), including systems such as “network model”, “relational model” and “entity set model”, stand out. Software based on this type of relational model was developed in the 1970s. Today, managing such a relational database remains a popular method. Currently, the most well-known relational DBMS are Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle Database, IBM DB2 and MySQL. A standardized programming language used to manage relational databases and perform various operations on the data is SQL (Structured Query Language). This language was created in the 1970s and continues to be used regularly by database administrators (Bastien, 2019). With the explosion of computer purchases in the 1980s and the emergence of the database market for businesses, the commercialization of relational data-based systems begins (Taylor, 2007). In 1986, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) was adopted an official SQL standard. In 1987, the International Standards Organization (ISO) also acknowledged this standard and it has been updated more than six times since then (Bastien, 2019). In the mid-1990s, the Internet / World Wide Web emerged and became widely available. This development allowed remote access to computer systems with existing data and as the client-server craze reached the desktop of the average users, Internet / VT has grown exponentially (Berg, Seymour, & Goel, 2012). Although electronic applications in information centers have a history of more than 30 years, it has moved to a new dimension especially in the 2000s. Web 2.0 applications, the first examples of which we started to see in the 2000s and recent developments in the analysis of semantic Web and large amount of data, affect information services in electronic media in a multifaceted way. Developing of technological possibilities, allow processing in the huge information pool and establishing relationships between complex data sets. However, what all these systems need is content that is digital, structured as much as possible, in other words defined metadata fields in accordance with standards (Külcü, 2018).
Database management system is a set of software that provides communication between the user and the database. In more detail, a database management system is a software that allows an organization to manage data effectively and provides easy access for application programmers to access stored data. The database management system ensures that; more than one information is kept in the same environment, rapid access to this information, the prevention of information repetition, accurately and quickly performed continuous transactions, using by more than one person at the same time the same information and data security. (Alp et al. 2011).
Database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that allows users to store, maintain, control and access to the created databases. The main purpose of a DBMS is to provide both a useful and efficient environment for users to obtain and store information (Watt & Eng, 2014). In other words, a database is a self-defining aggregate of records. Registration is a representation of some physical or conceptual object. Since a database contains a description of its structure, we can say that it defines itself. This definition is called metadata – data about data. The database is integrated to include relationships and includes its own data as well as other data items (Kroenke & Auer, 2007).
Database management system term; it includes a complete database and all the software related to management on. It is possible to divide the databases into two levels:
• Logical Layer
• Physical Layer
Accordingly, the layer, which is the logical layer and expressed relative to the above, is the layer that is closer to human thought and is more comfortable for people to think and use. The layer expressed by the physical layer is about how and where computers keep data. The system meant by database management system includes these two layers as a core. Database management systems are systems that contain many additional software such as user management, system backup and restore, performance monitoring and improvement and distributed database operation (Şeker, 2019).
Databases play an increasingly important role in traditional management (accounting, sales, decision making, etc.) practices, especially in e-commerce or customer relationship management, that concern corporate information systems. Database systems have an important place especially in management and informatics today (Gardarin, 2003).
Big data; is the form of converting all data collected from various sources such as social media posts, networks, blogs, photographs, videos and log files into meaningful and processable form. As usual, it’s an unstructured data collection that remains outside of the structured data kept in relational databases and has not been used much until recently. According to the widespread computing belief which is now demolished, unstructured data was worthless, but big data showed us something that it is the only system that is enormously important, usable, useful and has led to the emergence of treasure from the garbage dump today. Big data; It consists of a large amount of information such as web server logs, internet statistics, social media publications, blogs, microblogs, information from climate sensors and similar sensors, call logs from GSM operators.
Recent advances have reached the climax of advancement making big data possible in the ability to quantify, store and analyse data. The first progress in this area has been made in “data generation”. The digitization of information gathered from communication devices and digital sensors has enabled the quantification of many qualities that have never been converted into data before. The second development is that the data storage capacity increases exponentially and the costs decrease accordingly. In 2000, only a quarter of the information stored in the world was digital and the rest consisted of analog (paper, book, film, photograph, cassette, etc.) data, while by 2007 only 7% of the data remained analog. It is estimated that more than 98 percent of all data in 2013 was digital. Today, stronger computer processing capabilities and advanced algorithms are developed, allowing information to be analysed in new and interesting ways. Big data is a major source of competitive advantage already existing for companies and new initiatives are emerging to use big data in innovative ways. A series of predictive machine-generated content whether users are aware of it or not; examples of e-commerce are available today, such as an alternative writing for your web search, the next book you might want to read, which ads interest you or the ideal time to buy a low-priced airline ticket (Dunham, 2015).
1.2 Statement of the problem
In order to be able to achieve all goals stipulated, it is extremely important for the people interested with sport to have an access to digital data and contents. Developing culture of mutual assistance and learning from each other is preferable. This particularly applies to cases when there are obvious unfavourable situations and imperfections, both in the very organization and in the sport grounds surroundings. Web portals and various types of databases with a diversity of information and knowledge can be used for realization of these commitments. This actually means creating grounds for the sport organization to be able to successfully face and overcome all the challenges it encounters (Manev & Jakimovski, 2017).
Today, in the world it is possible to come across some database sports management applications that contribute to speed, efficiency and quality increase in sports management. Accordingly, a “Sports Information System” which is established within the scope of e-government in Nigeria has taken some important distances, but an effective management model that will provide mass orientation to sports is still needed. It is thought that the researches on this subject will bring quality, effectiveness and efficiency in sports management.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1. To understand the development of information database management system in sports value chain
2. To understand the relationship between information database management and sports football value chain
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the development level of information database management system in sports value chain
2. What is the relationship between information database management and sports football value chain
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between information database management and sports football value chain
H1: There is a relationship between information database management and sports football value chain
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