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AN INVESTIGATION INTO CAUSES AND EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS
Table of Contents
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment- – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
- Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
- Statement of Problem – – – – – – 5
- Objective of the Study – – – – – – 9
- Significance of the study – – – – – – 10
- Research question – – – – – – – 10
- Scope of the study – – – – – – – 11
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Concept of drug – – – – – – – 12
2.3 Drug – – – – – – – – – 14
2.4 Causes of drug abuse in Nigeria- – – – – 22
2.5 The effects of drug abuse on the user- – – – 25
2.6 Theoretical framework – – – – – – 29
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 37
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – 37
3.4 Research Instrument – – – – – – – – 38
3.5 Method of data collection – – – – – – 39
3.6 Problems of data collection – – – – – – 39
2.7 Method of data analysis – – – – – – – 41
Chapter four: Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 42
4.2 Demographic characteristics of respondents- – – 42
4.3 level of awareness of respondents about drug abuse within Kabong 49
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 58
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 60
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 61
References – – – – – – – – 65
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 67
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In every language, the word drug means any substances or chemical prescribe for medical reasons. However, it is one of the substances which alter the way the body functions. Many who condemn young people for using the illegal drug like heroin, cocaine, smoke and drink heavily themselves, ignoring the facts that these are the most abuse drugs of addiction.
On the subject drugs the Australian medical society on Alcohol and drug related problem stated. Drug in Australia account for one in five admissions are related to general hospital, in psychiatric hospital. One in two admissions are related to alcohol or drugs abuse.
In this country drugs abuse and alcohol affect serious crime and also contribute to fatalities Barry, 1984.
Drug abuse can be traced in Kabong community long before the period of colonial era. The general perception is that drug abuse are for motivation, intoxication and adequate performance both physical and socially. Some equally belief that it is philosophical that is it gives them wonderful ideas and though.
Other said it is an “oil of conversation” which means when taken, it enables them to talk well and meaningfully or rationally.
The topic of this research is “The effect of drug abuse on the female students ” A case study of Jos South Local Government in Plateau state. Drug is a very strong substance, made from different grain and herb with the mixture of many strong chemicals. It has a very serious short term effect. It charge within no time, it has been found to bring instability in work place as a result of an increased amount of the intake.
Boris (1974) say drug abuse can play or serve a significant role in everyday interpersonal affaires although there is no data shown, but many female students in Nigeria are user, however, there are many other users of drug that is beyond moderate level to them, drug abuse constitute a vey solving problem and this condition appears to be based on an underlined psychological abnormality.
Drug abuse seriously affect the individuals health and social function, it also hurt the users family, friends and colleagues and society as whole.
Swaggart (1984), identify the havoc caused by excessive drug abuse. According to him it has broken up more homes, murdered more human beings, made papers of more people starved more children, started more war, wrecked more careers, cause more any single factor on the surface of the earth.
Ejikeme (2003), equally identify problems associated with drug and alcohol abuse to include insomnia, injuries or even death incurred while driving etc under the influence of drug abuse increasing, likelihood of involvement in animal behavior (to finance the addiction); sickness resulting from the neglect of personal hygiene, toxic psychoses (may be precipitate by a single dose). Memory difficulties, high blood pressure, manpower loss, violent behavior and socially undersirable behavior.
Excessive abuse of drug may cause physically or psychological dependence or both may coexist in one individual. Drug abuse may also bring conflict between the user and the society. It may lead to social problem and also create conflict within user and his social environment (Ejikeme 2011).
Within the Kabong community of Jos south local government area, there appears to be an increasing rate of drug abuse in family setting. An observation shows that this practices of drug abuse is prominent among both sex though this observation also indicated that most of the female who abuse drug do not openly indulge in this practice due to socio-cultural reasons. Drug abuse indeed one of the major social problem being faced today by the female students of kabong community of Jos south, it account for a large portion of such problem and it has raise health, and marital issue for social welfare agencies.
The problem of drug abuse has become a trans-cultural phenomenon in the community as it has been observed in most communities in plateau state.
It is in view of the above that Silverstein (1990) argues that one of every four female students has problem with drug abuse, each member of the family may be affected by drug abuse differently.
Therefore drug abuse has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolong period of excessive use of drug in case of further complicate matter, such advanced cases often require the attention of psychotherapist or doctor.
Accordingly, it can be argued that some people (female students ) in Kabong community take drug to get away from pains and problems associated with social living and functioning. The people are deficient in their learned ways of dealing with problem of life while other abuse drug to elevate themselves, when celebrating an occasion. However, this is a tentative statement, which is still subject to proper and further investigation in the course of this research. To this end, this research is out to investigate any possible effect of drug abuse on the family and female students especially among Kabong Community in Jos South Local Government Area.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is instigated by the increasing use and abuse of drug among family and female students in Kabong community. Drug abuse and it effects on the family are relevant to the present trend of event, which was noticed to be increasingly growing as observed by the research. Drug abuse has been found to bring different kind of hazard to both the individual group and the community as a result of an increase intake (Ejekeme, 2001) draw attention to the factors that drug abuse and alcohol it is not less harmful than other chemical it posses some degree of risk to the user. In the same way Boris (1974) opines that abuse of drug can serve or play a significant role in inter personal offense. Researcher at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children, Sydney, tell us a single large intake of drug at the critical stage can cause FAS while frequent small amount of alcohol can lower the offspring’s intelligence and learning potential (Barry, 1984).
In Kabong community of Jos south local government area, the predominantly dwellers are the Rukuba and Berom people, the indulge in drug consumption as a social cultural heritage whereby drug parents mostly father give out the product to their children as food. Also to qureten those disturbing them from the busy and tight schedules at their various beer-pallor so as to enable them attend to customers. The children grow up to become drug abuser, thereby seeming no harm whatsoever in use of drug intake. Female students and adolescent of this community also pick up this habit through observing others abusing drug. In other words, these people are typically family members, parent, friends and neighbors around them.
Barry (1996) stated that damage to the ovum or sperm before conception can lead to abnormalities in the child. He further says that if the foetus is exposed to alcohol in the mothers blood in the early weeks, it may be born with foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
Some studies suggest that marijuana produces change in the users chromosome and as with nicotine and alcohol may damage sperm, reducing fertility and affecting the developing foetus. A defective ovum which is fertilized is likely to produce an early miscarriage. chronic cannabises use causes decreased level of male hormone testestone, testicular, degeneration and arrested or abnormal sperm production. Barry (1984).
However, as a result of socialization, culture has take a greater part in drug intake, it is said that any group or society in which the use of drug and drinking of alcohol custom, value and sanction together with attitude of all segment of the group or society are well established and agreed upon by all play a significant role in determining the people behavior.
In this way, culture is the acquired characteristic of a people, their total way of life, or how they do their own things, acquired through characteristic of a people, their total way of life, or how they do their own things, acquired through socialization. The effect of drug abuse to the health is quite tremendous. Forest and Garry (2004) examine that “heavy drug addict loss their appetite and tend to obtain calories from drug rather than ordinary food. In the first stage of liver disease caused by drug and alcohol, fat accumulate in the liver.
This stage of disease is known as fatty liver. Most people never notice it until it enlarges the live cells” this has been the case in Kabong community.
All human being in the society have goals, which they strive to achieve in life. But considering the hazards and demands that abuse of drug cause to the family, one then is forced to ask why people still indulge in drug abuse. Meanwhile, social realities present a picture of differential occurrence among individuals and even between human groups. The question thee is to what extent are certain variable like class, culture and gender responsible for or what extent do they determine drug and drug abuse.
It is in consideration of the above that the researcher s concerned with survey of social, emotional health, economics, political and psychological consequence of drug abuse and its effect on the family and female students in Kabong.
- Objectives of the Study
Based on the research problems and question the following are the specific objectives of the study:-
- To find out the social effect of drug abuse on the family
- To examine the economic impact of drug abuse on the family
- To investigate the psychological or emotional effect of drug abuse on the family
- To find out the physical or health consequences of drug abuse on the family
- To proffer solution as a guideline against drug abuse
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following formulated questions are provided to serve as a guide for the research.
- What effect does drug abuse have on the family?
- What social effect does drug abuse have on the family?
- What economics impact does drug abuse have on the family?
- What psychological or emotional effect does drug abuse have on the family?
- What physical or health effect does drug abuse have on the family
- What is the family orientation towards drug abuse
- What are the political consequences of drug abuse on the individual family and community
- Significance of the study
The study will contribute in addressing the issue related to problem of drug abuse on the family, female students and individual which is embedded in the socio-culture and psycho-social belief of most societies.
Beside, the study would further contribute to the knowledge Lauina (theory) discovered in existing relevant literature in the field thereby enabling government and non-governmental organization to find a possible solution to drug abuse.
In other words, it will provide scholarly information for further studies. More importantly the study will come up with a suggested programs, that when put into consideration the problem of drug abuse affecting the family would be brought to the bearest minimum
- Scope and limitation of the Study
This research work covers only family and female students within Jos South Local Government with specific reference to Kabong Community. It involves both the rich, poor illiterate and literate family in the community.
Intellectually, the research is concern with the effect of drug abuse on the female students ; on the other hand its geographical scope focuses on female students in Kabong community of Jos South Local Government Area. However, the study is limited in scope but we draw inference from the research work for a wider application on the effect of drug abuse on the female students generally.
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