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CHALLENGES OF TEACHERS OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Education is a process of acquiring desirable changes in ones behaviour or character. The school is a formal institution set up primarily to inculcate the desirable character in children and improve their knowledge in order to be useful to themselves and the society at large.
Social studies is one of the subject in the curriculum that help in achieving the aims and goals of education. The comparative educational study and adaptation centres (CESAC) 1968, defined social studies as “the study of man and his society with his interplay between him, his environment and effect of science and technology. He went on to state that the usefulness of social studies is enhanced when it is seen as a way of looking at the society in order to understand social problems and thereby help to seek solution to them.
Aderalegbe (1975) also described social studies as “a study of how man influence and has in turn influenced by his environment, in terms of physical, social, political religious, economic, psychological, cultural, scientific and technological environment. He went on to refer to social studies as a way of life”. Social studies is relatively a new subject through out the world. The idea of social studies first sprang up ion the United State of America and later in Europe. By the early 1960 the teaching of social studies has spread to all parts of the United State of America and Europe and later the subject started having impact in developing countries.
Social studies offer us important opportunities to know what is happen in, where, when and how, making our understanding positive value, social studies help in promoting, travelling experience and clearly show the inter-relationship and interdependence between man and places above all, it is clearly shown the world is dynamic rather than a static, social studies as a subject seek to solve the problems of the society and give clear insight into the problems of man and his environment. Social studies was introduced to Nigeria schools in 1963 in view of satisfying the urge of children who are always curious and want to know where, when of various events takes place in their environment, since the introduction of the social studies into Nigeria education system several questions has been raised about the teaching and learning of social studies. They ask such questions as what a learner who is exposed to social studies sought to find out.
The teachers feel not motivated hence the frequent strike by teachers in many states of the federation the teacher of social studies most of the time are not able to give better explanation of the lesson they teach because the necessary materials to school to help save the situation Okonkwo (1985) emphasize” the preparedness of the association (STAN) to explore alienable human an material resources toward the updating of social studies teaching in the country
He enlighten that nonpayment of social studies teacher allowances, saying that in other state, allowance is not only paid regularly but along with the teachers salaries” the teacher should be motivated so as to make meaningful contribution toward the development of social studies in the country the decline in social studies courses calls for serious concern to both the individual and the government
Onazi (1987) has this to say “decline in the number of application for pure social studies courses in Nigeria universities is a course for serious concern he stress that this trend of event is a major setback when compared to over 1,000 candidate admitted for low in university this year he regrets that this state of affaires would have negative effect on the future development of this country which he says needed much concern for social studies and technological break through”
Olurin another development says striving to fulfill its obligation to teacher performance some of them where below expectation he says they have not exhibited the level of commitment the state government would have to see in a group of its worker he further says the government expects absolute loyalty, devotion to duty and high standard of performance from it workers” teacher should endeavour to maintain performance in term of the stand and expected of them
Ekeli (1986) implores that in this country, the teacher and the teaching profession and cloyed with the poor and reckless attitude of various administration disfigurement of the personality of the Nigeria teachers has made it unavoidable for whoever confronts him to ask if Nigerians and their rulers are ever interested in the character of the man whose responsibility its to mound the mind, of the future lenders of this country
From above it is gathered that teacher are not motivated hence there are some unexpected attitude from them.
Nsaka (1984) say that “the research of all good teaching is sound planning it is difficult to a teacher to perform effectively in the classroom without proper preparation this support the researcher’s view than some teachers lack proper planning of lesson or notes of lesson they fail to follow the syllabus and plan ahead for the students which result to in effective teaching, it is not only the teacher that has to plan for the students the educat6ional planner have a part to play the students poor performance in social studies due to poor teaching
Oyakhilonme (1986) implores “education planners and managers in the country to involve a workable programme that would for ever lay the ghost of falling standard in education to risk he further sys this could be done by examine the nations educational standard and academic angles”
At this state of affair the body is responsible for education planning should do every thing possible to plan education according to the students agrees and ability.
For there to be effective teaching of social studies and also to have good performance from students there should be incentives to both the teacher and the students “Ochapa (1987) called for the re-introduction of special incentive to social studiess teachers and students so as to check the imbalance between art and social studies students population
He further stressed on the decline in the number of students taking social studies courses, the vice chancellor suggested the re-introduction of payment of special allowance to social studies teachers and the award of school unship to students offering social studies based courses to stem the trend if the above is followed there is going to be a changes in the performance in social studies
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The teaching of social studies in selected secondary schools in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State is associated with some of the following problems:
1. Lack of instructional materials affects the teaching of social studies
2. Lack of conducive environment affect the teaching of social studies.
3. Lack of appropriate method of teaching affect the teaching of social studies
4. Lack of incentive/regular payment of salary to teachers affects the teaching of social studies.
5. Lack of sufficient lesson periods allotted social studies affect the teaching of social studies.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems facing the teaching of social studies in selected secondary schools in Benin City. Teachers, parents and community and how well social studies programme could be designed to meet the expectation of these bodies. It is also hoped that the study will reduce the negative attitude of each of the above mentioned problems.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enlighten parents and the general public, and also help the government to recognize the problems affecting the effective teaching of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools. It will also help in the identification of those problems, and in no small measure help both the teacher and education planners to rejuvenate the present standard of schools in these areas.
This will also guide policy makers on how to tackle problems facing the teaching of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools. And it will help enhance students understanding of social studies and thereby improve their performances in social studies examinations.
1. Does the shortage of manpower (social studies teachers) in Ovia South West Local Government Area adversely affect student’s performance?
2. Does shortage of teaching resources and other equipment affect the performance of students?
3. Is the wide scope of social studies responsible for students lack of interest in the subject?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to five secondary schools namely:
Iguobazuwa Grammar School , Udo Mixed School, Siluko Grammar School, Gbelebu Secondary School, and also Uhaza Secondary School all in Ovia South West Local Government Area.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Problems – Something difficult to deal with or understand. Some thing to be solves or dealt with.
Effective – Achieving the intended result
Teaching – Giving instruction by a teacher to a lecturer.
Curriculum – This is the sum total of what the learner learn at school and what the teacher do to make the learners learn from their first day in school to when they graduate.
Society – An ordered community, a particular system of ordering the community.
Influence – Exercise power over something, people have effect upon person or something.
Interdependence – To depend on each other.
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