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TEACHERS’ VARIABLE INFLUENCING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examinations. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects. For instance, the percentage of failure compared with students who passed English and Mathematics between 2004 to 2007 are shown in tables 1 and 2. Poor academic performance according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics, social studies and Social studies among secondary school students (Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. Education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities. The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school to students because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000). Morakinyo (2003) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavoury comments about student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupils’ academic performance.
The question therefore is what is the cause of this fallen standard and poor academic performance of students? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that students of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out the relationship between teachers’ qualification and student’s academic achievement in social studies.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Based on this background, and the poor performance of students in external examinations as exemplified in tables i and ii, the central problem of this study is that secondary school students perform poorly in both internal and external examinations particularly in social studies.
Table i: The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) Performance in the Senior School Certificate Examinations: May/June, 2004-2007: Mathematics
|YEAR||TOTAL NO OF CANDIDATE||CREDIT A1-C6||PASS P7-P8||FAIL F9|
|2004 2005 2006 2007||1019524 1054853 1149277 1249028||33.97 38.20 41.12 46.75||28.16 25.36 31.09 26.72||34.47 34.41 24.95 24.24|
|YEAR||CREDIT A1-C6||FAIL F9|
|2004 2005 2006 2007||29.59 25.36 34.48 29.94||37.61 36.93 29.65 26.54|
SOURCE: Statistics Office, WAEC, Nigeria
This poor performance has generated a lot of concern amongst stakeholders in education business. As a result, this study sought to investigate the extent to which teacher’s academic qualifications affect student’s academic achievement in social studies.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study sets out clearly among other things to find out, if there is a relationship between teacher’s qualification and academic achievement of students. Specifically this study will find out
1. The academic qualifications of social studies teachers in Secondary Schools.
2. The level of academic achievement of students offering social studies in senior secondary schools.
3. If there is a relationship between the academic qualifications of social studies teachers and students academic achievement in senior secondary schools.
- Does teachers qualification and attitude have a significant effect on social studies performance of secondary school students?
- Is there a relationship between teachers qualification and attitude on social studies performance of secondary school students?
Ho: Teachers qualification and attitude have a significant effect on social studies performance of secondary school students.
H1: Teachers qualification and attitude does not have a significant effect on social studies performance of secondary school students.
Ho: There is a strong relationship between teachers qualification and attitude on social studies performance of secondary school students.
H1: There is a weak relationship between teachers qualification and attitude on social studies performance of secondary school students.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There was limited time and funds for the research. The uncooperative responses from the respondents also added to the limitations encountered during the course of the research.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teacher: A teacher (also called a school teacher) is a person who provides education for students
Qualification: A pass of an examination or an official completion of a course, especially one conferring status as a recognized practitioner of a profession or activity
Attitude: an attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event
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