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EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN NIGERIAN INTELLIGENCY AGENCIES (A CASE STUDY NIGERIAN POLICY FORCE)
Security information management system ( SIMS) can be defined as a collection of policies concerned with Information Technology (IT) related risks or Security information management system (ISM). Majority of SIMS frameworks that have been implemented and adopted by organizations and Nigeria intelligent agencies. This uses technology as a medium for securing information systems. The aim of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of security information systems in nigerian intelligency agencies with refernce to Nigerian policy force. The principal objective of this project is to help Security Information Systems (SIS) especially Nigerian Police which is my case study in the area they encounter problems in securing security data-processing and efficient information system. This will be the solution given to handle this problem by transforming the existing manual information system into an automated form and overcome the existing problems of insecurity and delay in data processing. I decided to use an automated database system to enhance information storage and keep track of security information. Again, doing this will ensure that there is an effective security information system computerization. To achieve this, Visual Basic 6.0 is used for its implementation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Any nation that ignores the importance of security is bound to face instabilities and threats to her corporate existence as in the case of Nigeria in recent times. The past governments both military and civilian have tended to pay lip-services to security as reflected in inadequate funding and equipping of these security departments especially the Nigerian Police Force. As a result of the lack of prioritization of needs of these security providers in Nigeria, the country has continued to face destabilizing threats to her corporate existence and national integration. The lack of training and inadequate man-power observed amongst these poorly funded and badly motivated security forces, has continued to create man-power shortages needed to fight-off these security challenges particularly, in Nigerian police force where there are only 205 policemen protecting 100,000 citizens as against the UNO or world’s acceptable standards of 222 police per 100,000 citizen (UNO Report, 2012).
The multi-ethnic and cultural nature of Nigeria and the weak judicial institutions as well as politicization of security matters due to interferences by politicians have continued to force these security departments to compromise their statutory functions to the detriment of effective national security management. Prolonged delays to response to threat indicators create aversion to and engenders adverse public image of these security forces and negatively affect public perceptions and relationship with these security forces. This makes the public reluctant to divulge critical security information to them to the detriment of effective management of national security matters.
The over-bearing influences of tribal and religious sentiments in recruitment and composition of the security forces in Nigeria, has had negative effects on their effectiveness. Similarly, the observed neglect by the past Nigerian governments to give priority attention and respond to the operational and administrative needs of security departments has created inadequacies and negatively affected the combat readiness of these forces. This paper will examine and analyze the effectiveness security information management system for effective performance of Nigerian intelligent agencies. A management system describes the processes, technologies and people used to emphasize and manage the activities of intelligent agencies. Each organization builds a unique system that supports the goals of that organization.
The system will reflect different disciplines depending on the values and culture of the organization. So, we see systems defined with very different areas of focus such as health, safety, quality, enterprise management, environment, web content, personnel, risk and many other topics; and with different emphasis on security factors such as confidentiality, integrity, availability, or on topics such as privacy or product assurance. Security information management system ( SIMS) is a documented system that provides security for information and data in intelligent agencies. Every organization is faced with the task of providing a comprehensive plan for security information system.
Caralli & Wilson (2004), opined that “modern organizations have a huge challenge on their hands as they must secure the organization in the face of increasing complexity, uncertainty, and interconnection brought about by an unprecedented reliance on technology vis-à-vis legislative policies on security”. Today‟s information systems are complex collections of technology (i.e., hardware, software, and firmware), processes, and people, working together to provide organizations with the capability to process, store, and transmit information in a timely manner to support various missions and business functions. Information needs to be available, accurate and up-to-date to enable intelligent agencies make good business decisions. While various SIMS frameworks have been implemented and adopted by organizations, the focus has been more on the use of technology as a means of securing information systems.
However, security information system needs to become an organisation-wide and strategic issue, taking it out of the information technology (IT) domain and aligning it with the corporate governance approach. Furthermore, an algorithm-based SIMS model demonstrating ITGC concepts, is proposed with a more human-centred approach, in order to achieve a more efficient guide to security information management system . Despite the fact that each organization builds a unique system, the management systems have several common elements, and are based around an improvement cycle. One frequently used is the popular “Plan-Do-Check-Act” (PDCA) cycle lectured in Japan (Deming, 1950). This cycle is used as a guide in planning the action of what needs to be done and how best to go about it, establish the controls needed, monitor progression, and improve the system – taking preventive and corrective actions and pointing out areas for improvement. The analysis of management systems has shown that there are various common elements including policy, planning, implementation and operation, performance assessment, improvement, and management review.
This paper will present a near exhaustive review of management systems for security information system using resources provided by various researchers in the field of SIMS. It will also provide an introductory motivation; showing where security risks arise and how they can be managed in organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Security information system has always played a vital role in the stability of a nation. Keeping security information manually can hinder some defense program and delay passage of security information to the appropriate body. Manual documentation of security information can lead to exposure of the information thereby creating threat to the nation at large. Hence, there is need for an automated security information system to guaranty safety of information.
The several security challenges facing Nigeria is an indication of ineffective security management in the country traceable to long neglect of essential elements in security planning and management in Nigeria. There is an observed lack of prioritizing of critical elements of security by Nigeria’s past leaders and political class which has continued to generate serious threats to its national security. The lack of adequate funding and equipping of security departments and politicization of security matters in Nigeria based on partisan, tribal and religious considerations are traceable to the security dilemma being faced in the country. Lack of security awareness of the average Nigerian citizen coupled with lack of training of security personnel, also compound security problems in the country.
This paper states that until these critical elements of security are given priority attention and implemented promptly, the nation will continue to grapple with crippling security challenges that threaten her security and unity. Other lapses in critical security elements application in Nigerian security include; (i) inadequacies in manpower recruitment and training of security forces and law enforcement agencies (ii) lack of timely and promptness in the handling of security issues by government (iii) lack of citizens involvement in state security management(iv) low standard of security awareness (v) reluctance by citizens to volunteer security information to law enforcement agencies (vi) slow threat response by government to security advices on threat assessment and neutralization (vii) lack of effective coordination and harnessing of human material and technical resources (viii) poor funding of security agencies and low motivation of security personnel (ix) lack of effective security networking between security and law enforcement agencies (x) lack of security personnel’s self control and discipline (xi) lack of secrecy and porous security network (xii) non-adherence to document security classifications and violation of oaths of secrecy Acts in security and government departments in Nigeria and (xiii) neglect and abandonment of retired security personnel who would have still been useful to the nation but are often abandoned by their former department after retirement which can force some of them to engage in criminal activities.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To identify the basic elements of information security management system.
2. To examine the risk associeted with the management of security information system.
3. To build a database system for police security information.
4. To develop a software for managing security information.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.What are the basic elements of information security management system?
2. Are there risk associeted with the management of security information system?
3. Can this study help to database system for police security information?
4. Can it help to develop a software for managing security information?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: This study cannot help to database system for police security information.
H1: This study helps to database system for police security information.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is that will the full change over of administrative jobs/operations, there will be ease in the system of storage and retrieval of personnel information.
Secondly the programming language used in designing this system will enable unbiased sorting of officers for duties and courses deployment and promotion of officers when required also it will enable same processes to be application to some other command and divisions, while it is paramount that it is well addressed at this global revolution when one can still board a moving train when ICT globalisation is still the issue on our daily private and public sectors.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The research covers the effectiveness of security information systems in Nigerian intelligent agencies using Nigerian policy force as a case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. Time: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. Finance: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. Information Constraints: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private business organization and even government agencies. People find it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Policing: Policing is another way of depicting the police.
Anti-policing: Anti-policing is the society’s social attitude opposed to war between states and in particular countering arguments based on policism.
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called a databank.
Security:. security is the state of being safe or protected against danger or risk. It is also seen as a state of being safe and the absence of fear, anxiety, danger, poverty and oppression.
National Security: The requirement to maintain the survival of the nation-state through the use of economic, policing, and political power and the exercise of diplomacy.
Security information system: means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording, or destruction.
Classified Information is sensitive information to which the access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of persons.
Security Management is a broad field of management related to asset management, physical security and human resource safety functions.
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