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MILITARY AND THE QUEST OF DEVELOPMENT- A PHILOSOPHICAL OVERVIEW
This study aim at examine the military and the quest of development- a philosophical overview. The quantitative research method was the instrument used to collect data for the study. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaires were distributed to sampled consumers, distributors and marketing staff of the company, out of which 200 copies was retrieved back. The data was analyzed using the simple percentage method and chi-square was employed to test the significance between the observed variables and the underlying construct. The findings revealed within the period of military regimes in Nigeria, several policies and programmes were initiated and implemented towards the socioeconomic and political development of the country but with little or no positive impact on the socio-economic development of the citizens of the country. The research recommends Inter alia that the professionalization and increase budgetary allocation to the Nigeria military would not only encourage them to concentrate on their primary constitutional role but would also dissuade them from intervening in politics, thereby allowing the governance of the country to civilians who are supposed to be better placed to initiate and implement policies and programmes for the socio-economic and political development of the country.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The evaluation of Nigeria as a political entity is characterized by prolonged years of military regimes as opposed to democratic governance. Out of the country’s 54 years of independence, 29 have been spent under military regimes as against 25 years under civilian governments and since then, Nigeria had grappling with the daunting task of development (Eminue; 2006). Military is define as the use of force orvertake power or governance. Eminue (2006), define military rule as governance dominated by military leaders. Military regime is seen as a government led by military leaders Eshikena (2012),
It is generally regarded as an aberration of governance and a negation of political development. The military is a peculiar organization in several respects. It is a bureaucratic organization, with excessive emphasis on hierarchy, centralization, discipline, and obedience to higher commands, rapid communications and espirit de corps. The military organisation, have certain values, attributes, and characteristics such as uniforms, separate barracks and some detachment from society. The military is an institution that utilizes and manages violence.
The military organization and its resources is one measure of the power of a state. The organization strength of the military along with her control of arms and trained men, make the military a powerful public institution in all states. The fifty-five years of independence for Nigeria nation have not been easy. Welding such diverse community into a single nation with a stable political process is still at an early stage despite its advantages in oil resources, good- agricultural land, and a solid core of well-educated citizens, some human development indexes still rank Nigeria among the poorest countries of the world in terms of socio-economic and political development (Eshikena; 2012).
According to Eminue (2003) and Adesina (1999), one major justification for past military intervention in governance is the mismanagement of the country’s resources by civilian governments which in turn has led to poor socio-economic development of the citizenry, while the military described themselves as “Corrective regimes” (Eshikena, 2012). This is done as a way of legitimizing their stay in power. As a result, many Nigerians say that if there is any good coming out of all that bad years of military dictatorship and ineffective civilian governance, it is the fact that they have made enough mistakes to learn meaningful lessons from them. A philosophical look at the programmes and policies of successive military regimes in Nigeria shows that they have made varying impact on the nation’s socio-economic and political development. It is therefore pertinent to examine military and the quest of development- a philosophical overview hence, this research work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Eminue (2006) and Ekele (2011), assert that the socio-economic and political improvement of nations is often the yardstick for measuring the performance of any government. Hence, when people aspire for or assume power, they often state their policies and programmes that are aimed at transforming the socio-economic and political prospects of their nations. The same can be said of military regimes in Nigeria’s history. Successive regimes have often used the prevailing state of socio-economic development as one of their justifications for intervening in politics. As usual, the regimes often pledges to improve the socio-economic and political development of the country. It should however be noted that the strategies employed to achieve such objectives varies from regime to regime. A common trend of the socio-economic policies initiated by military regimes in Nigeria is the need to boost agriculture, alleviate poverty and reform the economy. In agreement with the above view, Eminue (2006) observed that Nigerian military regimes had implemented several programmes, yet there was the preponderance of economic decline as evident in poverty among the masses, spiraling inflation, growing unemployment, policy summersault and economic stagnation.
There was also the depletion of the nation’s foreign reserves, reduction in real income, declining Gross Domestic products, wide spread corruption among public servants and lastly, slow pace of infrastructural development. The above scenario actually compounded and made the socio-economic programmes of successive military regimes to be less impactful on the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria, inspite of the enormous revenues accruing to the country from crude oil during the military misadventure.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To examine the history of military administration in Nigeria.
2. To evaluate the factor that causes of military intervention Nigerian politics.
3. To examine the statutory role of the military in Nigeria.
4. To evaluate the philosophical views on the impact of military in the socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.
5. To examine the consequences of military coup d’etat on political development in Nigeria.
6. To identify measures to enhance the skills of the military and intelligence services for better social development ion Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Can one trace the history of military administration in Nigeria?
2. What are the factors that cause military intervention Nigerian politics?
3. What are the statutory role of the military in Nigeria?
4. What are view held by the philosophers on the impact of military in the socio-economic and political development in Nigeria?
5. Does military coup d’etat affect Nigerian political development?
6. What are the measures to enhance the skills of the military and intelligence services for better social development ion Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: The philosophers held negative views on the impact of military in the socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.
H1: The philosophers held negative views on the impact of military in the socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant on the following ways:
Firstly, it would provide an insight into the role that military is played in national development in Nigeria. Secondly, it is hoped that the study would provide the Nigerian leaders with enough information that will guide them in formulation that will guide them in formulating policies in the areas of development projects. Thirdly, the study will go a long way in changing the orientation of the people with respect to the negative perception of military in politics. Such understanding it is expected would help to engender the spirit of tolerance and accommodation among the people of diverse religion.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is military and the quest of development- a philosophical overview.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Time factor is the major constraint of this research work. This research work was made in a comprehensive way in order to meet the aspirations of people interested in the field for further studies though time could not permit me to go further. Inability to provide and unveil the participants with information in respect of the subject matter under consideration. Moreover, the pressure in the field makes the respondents to be skeptic to the questions, its implications or the actual purpose of the study not cleared to them because of their level of education and exposure. Financial factor is another constraint to this intensive research work. The extra cost of running around to different locations, academic and non-academic institutions couple with my inability to assess some relevant but encrypted sites online due to high cost of online registration.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The Military: this is one of the institution of the state assigned with the responsibility of defending the territorial integrity of the state to ward off aggression from other independent state.
Democratization: if we take democracy as being on a continuum with low democracy, medium democracy and high democracy as the closet to the democratic dead and, then in reference to Nigeria we can only speak of democratization; which is a form of low democracy tending toward medium with democratic consolidation still for fetched.
Civil-Military Relation: this notion conote the idea of engendering civilian control of the military as well as keeping the military in the barrack to perform their constitutional/ traditional role.
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