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EFFECT OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE BY DEPARTMENT HEADS ON SECRETARIES PERFORMANCE IN THE ORGANIZATION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The success of any organization is highly rated upon the head, boss or the manager of such an enterprise, like business, school or any organization. The leadership impact is desirable in organization to aid easy and maximum success. Leadership is an instructional used in an organization for behaviour modification.
It determines the goals of organization and means of accomplishing them. Therefore, leadership in organization has been seen as motivator whereby one person who is the head motivates others towards, the achievement of specific goals of the organizations. However, fellowship is the essence of leadership, in other words it is willingness of the people to follow that makes a person a leader. Moreover, people follow those perceived to be providing means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs.
In this case, we can see that leadership and motivation are closely interconnected. Motivation enables us appreciate better what people want and why they act as they do.
In secondary school administration, the success of any school to achieve its stated goals or objectives depends on the ability of the chief administrator otherwise known as the principal and his leadership style.
Effective leadership role provided by the principal will lead to the achievement of the school’s goals and objectives. There is on adage which says “Get the right man in the leadership and your problem will be solved”.
Education among other concern is an instrument for effecting national development. As a gender towards this accomplishment, the national policy on education has been formulated. To achieve the stated aims and objectives of the national policy, all stakeholders in the educational sector have different roles to play. At the grass root level, the management available resources rest solely upon the schools principals inclusive in principals roles is the provision of effective administrative skills which cannot be separated from their leadership styles.
The principals’ leadership styles in secondary schools is a pointer the level of productivity of teachers or their job performance. How effective the principal is in performing these roles has been a mother of concern to many educationists (Aghenta, 2000, Ige, 2001).
With the close review of the setbacks being experienced in some secondary schools, pressure groups are agitating for effective leadership styles. It is glaring that some principals have not considered their styles of leadership as the determinants of teachers job performance level. Hence, some principals seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools (Gronn, 2000, Adeyemi 2004).
Every school principal is in a unique position as the manager or administrator of the resources in their schools.
The school administrator is a leader of the staff and the students of the school. He is expected to be knowledgeable in the area of administration and should be in nature. He should be able to address difficult issues or problems of different point in time. Leadership is concerned with human experience and energy in an organized group and the concept is also of prime importance to administration. The leadership style of the principal is demonstrated in his abilities which make him to be recognized as leader of a group. Many people strongly believe even when there is an educational plan, good school programme, adequate staff and facilities, what is more important is good administrative leadership to coordinate all these for the progress and success of the school.
Incase, where the leadership style of the principal is ineffective, even the best school programme, the most adequate resources and the most motivational staff and students will be rendered unproductive.
Therefore, the importance of good leadership style in an organization cannot be overemphasized.
It is highly pertinent to know that leadership style is concerned with the invitation, organization and directions of the members of a group in a specific situation towards achieving the objectives of the group. As far as standard of education is concerned in the country, a large section of the people strongly believe that the standard of evaluation falling and the value of education consequently depreciating. Over the years, different reasons have been given for this decline. The society blamed schools for mass promotion of students and teachers were equally blamed left out of the blamed in that they are not paying enough attention to their children’s academic development.
In addition, the government is also being blamed for the failure to meet the needs of the teachers. As a result to this, teachers spend most of their time doing their private business as instead of reading and preparing their lesson notes. All of which is in a bid to make ends meet in the face of economic challenges. The principals of schools were also blamed for failing to do their jobs in exercising their leadership role in their various schools. In the light of the above, there is the urgent need to investigate the impact of the relationship of the principal’s leadership style on teacher’s morals in term of commitment and productivity in secondary school in Ifo Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Students too not left out of the reason for the blame as most of them are not ready to face their studies as required. Teachers and students level of productivity in school determine how the principals’ administrative role and leadership style are rated. The key for an effective leader is the ability to lead effectively, coordinate a complex situation and show concern through prudent manage of human and material resources available.
According to Koontz (1980) “If all school principals can’t rely upon all the subordinates to contribute toward group goal accomplishment with zeal and confidence, there would be no need to develop the act of leadership”. There is always the need to boost the moral of teachers, which will even make them to serve to their maximum capability.
Therefore, among the administrative functions of the principal is to persuade teachers and use his leadership style to coordinate all activities to ensure they contribute willingly to organizational goals. It worth knowing that the improvement of any educational institution depends on quality of its teachers. The main objectives of any educational system is to promote teaching and learning process. Teachers are therefore expected to be committed to facilitate the teaching process. To ensure the possibility, principals too must provide conductive atmosphere for their teachers. The type of leadership style being operated in the school will make staff in schools to be inspired, zealous and co-operate to work harmoniously with the principal.
Educational objectives can only be achieved with the full co-operation of the school community. effective administrative leadership involves the understanding of the behavior of members.
To be led in any organization or institution of learning. this understanding is necessary especially where team members include professional qualified specialists.
Homan, G.C. and the Human Group: New York Harcourt Brace and World Inc. (1950) stated that belief of people that the efficiency with which any school organization can be operated depends to a large extent on the effectiveness of the teachers on their jobs, both individually and collectively. The issues of teachers performance in the classroom, based on principals leadership style is a concern of this project.
The question of what factor generally influence teachers morale is amply discussed in several literatures a summary of which is simply presented by Lawler (1996) thus:
In addition to being influence by motivation, productivity is affected by workers ability and a number of situational and environmental factors. The objectives of the school will not be achieved if there is no harmony in the school between teachers performance and principal’s leadership style.
Moreover, it will be erroneous to conclude that all school principals in this country fail to acknowledge the significance of good human relation. It is evident that leadership approach vary from one principal to the an other as a result of prevailing situation.
“What can be said to be true about one situational environment may not be true about another. What may be wise action in one situation may be wise action in one situation may be unwise in another. The understanding of the existence of a great variety of patterns, conditions and responses in the beginning of wisdom of approaching the problem of leadership style.
The statement could be viewed as signifying that effective leadership should take into account people, process and the system. The need for effective interaction between the staff and the leader in the school system cannot be overemphasized, when one considers the fact that no school problem can be treated effectively without the involvement of all concerned.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- To find out the most commonly used leadership style among principals in Ifo Local Government Area
- To examine if there is any significant relationship between principal and leadership style and job performance
- To investigate the differences in teachers’ job performance under principals using autocratic leadership style and those using democratic leadership style
- To discuss the differences in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style and in schools using autocratic leadership style
- To contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the need to employ better leadership style to boost teachers’ productivity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The relationship between principals’ leadership style and teachers’ job performance has been a subject of controversy by many researchers. The controversy was centered on whether or not the style of leadership of principals influences the level of job performance among teachers. Common observation in the school system shows that the style of leadership of a principal could perhaps have serious impact on teachers’ job performance.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Which leadership style is most commonly used by principals in secondary schools in Ifo Local Government Area?
- Is there any significant relationship between principals’ leadership style and teacher performance?
- Is there any significant difference in teaches’ job performance in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style and in schools having principals using democratic leadership styles?
- Is there any significance difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using democratic leadership style and in schools having principals using laissez-faire leadership style?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The extent to which the various leadership approaches by secondary school principals has influenced the teaching learning situation is an important area of investigation. The study will enable us examine the influence of the relationship and the school work and to examine the nature of the principal behavior towards the staff and students and to examine the key position held by principal in school organization.
Finally, it enables to examine the crucially of human input such as teachers to school organization and the damage a principals bad behaviour may do the school organization.
In addition, principals of school are always regarded by their teachers as leaders in the administration and in school board of education, parents and teachers and other various public people usually hold principal responsible for success and failure of school organization. In the light of this, the study finds out the extent to which principal’s style or behavior contribute to high or low performance of both staffs and students in school. The out-come of this study would be of significance to:
i. The practicing educational administrator/principal.
ii. Educational administrators in training and
iii. Local State board and ministry of education officials.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
For easy data analysis, cost reduction and avoidance of complexity that may arise due to large population , five schools have been selected. In most cases the characteristics of teachers are generally similar hence this research findings will be generalized to include all teachers in secondary schools.
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