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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN AN OEGANISATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – ix
1.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – 1
- Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
- Statement of the Problem – – – – – 6
- Objective of the Study – – – – – – 7
- Significance of the Study – – – – – – 8
- Research Questions – – – – – – – 9
- Limitation of Study – – – – – – – 9
- Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 10
Literature Review – – – – – – – – 12
- Source of Literature – – – – – – – 12
- The Search for Alternatives – – – – – 21
- PR. Activities – – – – – – – – 26
- Empirical Review – – – – – – – –
- Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 30
- Summary – – – – – – – – – 31
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – – – – – – 32
- Research Design – – – – – – – 32
- Area of the Study – – – – – – – 33
- Population of the Study – – – – – 33
- Sample Size – – – – – – – – 33
- Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 34
- Source of Data – – – – – – – – 35
- Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 35
- Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 36
- Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 36
- Measures to Show Validity & Reliability – – – 36
Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – – 37
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – 37
4.2 Analysis of Data – – – – – – – 38
4.3 Findings – – – – – – – – – 46
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations – 48
- Summary of the Findings – – – – – – 48
- Conclusion – – – – – – – – 51
- Recommendations – – – – – – – 53
Reference – – – – – – – – – 56
Appendix I – – – – – – – – 58
Questionnaire – – – – – – – – 59
This study is aim at revealing the effectiveness of public relations in the Banking Industry. Public relations is a tool used by organization to boost their image and maintain a good standing in the world market. It is essentially employed by government, schools, individuals and organizations to achieve a set goal of being a leader in any industry. The problem associated with public relations is that it is money intensive. Organizations spend huge amount of money to create a good relationship between them and the public that consumes its products. Some of the method of creating public relation is not easily accepted by the public as they see it as exploitation. Public relations may not be making progress but through intensive advertisement, may create a good impression outside. Methods of creating effective public relations include advertisement, philanthropic activities, sponsoring of sports and festivals, Bonanza, competitions, and giving a free products of an organization to people within a stipulated time. Offering of scholarship to brilliant people in the place or country of the organization. UBA bank Ado Ekiti give out gift items to their customers such as biros, calendars, and other items in appreciation of patronage. Many of its customers smile home every month with cash prices and awards for effective operations with the bank. The staff of the organization are not left behind since there is Christmas and new year Bonanza for them annually. The organization is poised to go extra mile since the tool of public relations is making huge returns for them more than expected.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The practice of public relations is as old as history, though the form of public relations as practiced today is a fall out of the World War II. Even as early as 1800 BC public relations in one form or the other was practised. It can be traced to the biblical injunction in Leviticus 19 vs 18 that “thou shall not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shall love thy neighbor as thy self. I am the Lord from the above”. It can be seen that it is good to be good and public relation is all about being good. An organization that is good to its immediate neighbours will contribute to their wellbeing and will get the understanding.
The first practice of public relations was by Adam and Eve when they were still in the Garden of Eden. The Bible has it that after eating the forbidden fruit, they realized that they were naked. When God called them; their first thought was covering their nudity before appearing to God. This is public relations because they wanted to appear presentable before God.
In ancient times, priests were experts in opinion formation and persuasion. Kings consulted them before any important ceremony took place. They served as a kind of public relations adviser to the kings. It was the duty of these priests to produce literature of praise, of commendation and edicts.
In Egypt then, tombs, temples, pyramids were built to impress on the people the greatness and importance of the kings and the elites.
In Greece, the ruling class staged events such as Olympic games to develop the national spirit and sense of unity. Orators were used in Rome as a means of affecting the people’s minds and establishing public opinion.
The first organized form of public relations was during the reformation and counter – reformation. As one would recall, the reformation was a religious resoluation of the 16th century which divided western Christendom into two; namely, the Roman Catholic and the Protestants. It was a movement that stressed the right of individual conscience. The reformation attacked the absolute ecclesiastical powers of the Roman Catholic Church.
As a result, the Roman Catholic Church launched a counter reformation in the 17th century by the authority of Pope Gregory XIII. A committee for the propagation of the faith was established to open seminaries and published religious works. This committee was at times called collage of propaganda. They appealed to the opinion of the congregation through propaganda. Their concern was to persuade the people to accept and preserve the unity of the church.
Historical Allan Neus traces the beginning of public relations in American to Alexander Hamilton. Dr. Nevris also endorses professor Broadus Mitchell’s view expressed in the biography to win ratification of the constitution of public relations”
Business also recognized the need for more than one press gently to inform the public about business operations in the early 1900s. During that period, business was denounced as un-scrupulous and an enemy of the masses by many popular writer including Thomas W.W. Lawson, Ida Tarbel and others who attached the morals of business. Also in the public criticism of business, business recognized that public relations was born. A leading exponent of informing the people was Ivy Lee. He insisted that corporation should give the public accurate information about their policies and practices. He was the first to set up a public relations consultancy.
In 1903 Lee informed the public relations firm of Parkar and Lee, which in 1916 BECAME Lee, Harns and Lee. In 1991, he was joined by Thomas Ross to form Ivy Lee and T.J. Ross Associates, Ivy Lee is known as the father of modern public relations.
Public relations practitioners in 1920’s also recognized the need why public relations aimed not only to inform the public attitudes towards business. During the economic depression of the early 1930’s the understanding and goodwill towards business, developed by the early public relations councilors during the booming of 1920s turned into distrust of business.
Business management realizes the establishing public relations departments and employing public relations manager to improve the public image of business. In 1931, Paul Garref was employed by the General motors’ corporation as the public relations manager.
In Nigeria, the development and practice of public relations was linked with World War 1 and II when public relations was devoted to creating a better public understanding of the problems converting from a war time to a peace economy. Even before the war, public relations practiced existed. There was maintenance of relationship with traditional rulers to get in touch with their people. In history of Nigeria, the Alafin of Oyo Empire was responsible for peace and order, distribution of honour, award of titles, protect of vassal states from external attacks and settling of disputes.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The banking industry has been identified over the years as having the potential of transforming the basic economy of any community state or nation, If properly established and well constituted, controlled and managed. In the banking industry today, certain problem affected the effectiveness of public relations thereby, preventing them from achieving their target aim.
One of the major problems in UBA bank Ado Ekiti is poor customer services shown by long but avoidable delays in accomplishing simple transaction. These transactions range from encashment of cheques, opening of new accounts to processing of loan and overdraft applications. This delay of services is obviously detrimental to office owner, international businessmen and students as work to withdraw some small amount of money.
Secondly, it appears that the bank is faced with incompetent staffs carrying out infection transactions. This is because staffs are not employed by men rather they are more often employed by god fatherism.
Finally, the need to bring to the fore, a thorough understanding of the impact of public relations of bank services in the quest for continuous relevance and survival by the bank.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this research work includes the following.
- To know whether the practice of public relations of the bank has any significant impact on the existence, profitability and survival of the bank.
- To know if the practice of public relations by the bank in the recent time has contributed to the increase of customers in the bank.
- To ascertain if the bank customers are now better treated through the use of effective public relations.
- To review the process and the strategies use by the bank to attract customer, retain the old ones and draws back into the organization those that left in search of better banking services.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is intended that through this study, we will be able to find out the way UBA bank related with the people of Ado Ekiti. This study will be useful in the following area.
To find out the efforts UBA bank is making towards improving its relationship with their numerous public thus enabling other banks to improve on their neglected areas.
To create awareness of the importance of public relations department in banks and to input those that have none, to establish some.
To reveal the strategies use by the bank to achieve their goal.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To give focus to the research problems, the following questions were formulated.
- Does the practice of public relations has any significant impact on the existence, profitability and survival of the Bank.
- How does UBA bank Plc Ado Ekiti relate to its customers, staff and the public?
- To what extent has public relations help to establish goodwill relationship between management and the staff.
- To what extent has public relations practice increase the number of customers of the bank?
- Are the bank’s customers better treated through the practice of public relations?
- LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Some factors posed a problem in the course of this study. These limitations are lack of literature on public relations strategy as adopted in UBA bank Plc Ado Ekiti. Also the simple average percentage statistical technique adopted would have earned a better result if not for divergent level of understanding and prejudices of the respondents. Lack of time equally affected the scope of the study.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
- PUBLIC: The word public refers to a group of people who share common interest, face a similar situation, recognize the consequences and seek to deal with the situation.
- STRATEGY: This is the art or employing all elements of the power of a nation or nations to accomplish the objectives of a nation or an alliance of peace or war.
- PUBLIC RELATIONS: This is the art and social science of analyzing trends predicting the consequences, counseling organizational levels and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization and the public interest.
- CUSTOMER: A person or party who receives a service or product in exchange for a payment of some sort.
- BANK: A financial establishment that uses money deposited by customers for investment, pays it out when required, make loans at interest, and exchanges currency.
- INDUSRTY: The term industry is sometimes used to describe a very precise business activity or a more generic business activity.
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