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TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL AND THE CHALLENGES OF CORRUPT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA 1999-2012
The main objective of this work is to access and evaluate transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria since 1999-2012 . Transparency international, briefly (TI), is a non-governmental organsiation with seat, acting world-wide, in Berlin which engages itself in national and international people and economical corruption fight and raising the awareness of it. This includes, but not limited to political corruption, it publishes yearly its corruption perception index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide.
Also to understand the negative impact on the economy growth and development of Nigeria. Different types of corruptions will be looked into and how Nigeria was created by the international community during the era of General Sani Abacha from 1993 – 1998. How prominent Nigerian lost their lives and freedom during this era.
Political Corruption as a social malaise has become a ubiquitous in every society of the world. The danger posed by it has brought to many countries unmitigated disaster to both the economy and political systems. Nigeria is not left out in the danger posed by this phenomenon. This work however centres on the political corruption and the dilemma of democracy in Nigeria’s fourth republic pointing out the shameless practice of corruption during the fourth republic.
The global increase in the cases of corruption is as a result of social disorganization has been perceived to be perverted deviation from the norms of a given society in the execution of developmental programmes or social duty where respective societies have striven to eradicate or reduce to the minimum level. Various people from different levels of life exhibit corruption. This paper shall examine the growing cases of corruption in Nigeria, causes of corruption, the effect of corruption in Nation building, it will also examine the role been played by various law enforcement agencies in solving these pandemic situation. The will finally, examine possible solution and with a moral song towards the reduction of corruption menace in our contemporary society.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The growing clamour for democratic transitions that swept through the entire African continent in the 1990s subsequently gave birth to a wave of competitive multiparty election thereby challenging authoritarianism, military rule and one-party regime in virtually all African States with a view as Nyirabu(2002:99) put it “widening the space of democracy”. Such democratic transitions have however not limited to African countries alone. A writer has properly put this when he stated that: ‘In the coming years, more countries will undoubtedly move toward democracy and some democratic transitions will occur (Huntington, 1996:5). This prediction many years ago came into reality.
Paradoxically, Nigeria’s democracy especially the one that commenced from May 29, 1999 was born with persistent ethnic and religious tensions, growing religious conflict, depressed economy and marginalisation among others. Of these problems, no one is more intractable and more threatening to the future of Nigerian democracy than political corruption. Thus a statistical index on 85 countries, covering all the continents of the world from Transparency International showed that, Nigeria and Tanzania occupied the fifth position (Eke, 1999: 5). While this was so in 1999, by 2004 the same Transparency International ranked Nigeria as the third most corrupt country in the world (Adesina, 2004:16). Both internal and international observers have rated Nigeria as the most corrupt country in the world, deserving a pride of place in the Guinness Book of Records (Umukoro, 2008:67). Nuhu Ribadu, a former head of the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) alerted the nation that as many as 31 former governors out of 36 have a case to answer on corruption (Adesina, 2008: 28). The issue is so appalling in Nigeria that in another development, Ribadu revealed how politicians siphoned over $10bn from Nigeria monthly (Farotimi, 2010: 7).
Analysts of political corruption in the Third World have regarded this monster as the single most important obstacle to economic development and political integration (Tignor, 1993: 175). In fact, the British Government became increasingly worried after the World War II and resultantly claimed that the transfer of power which could guarantee political independence to Nigeria should be slowed down because of the rate of political corruption. Tignor (1993, 176) further claimed that, of the problems such as thuggery in politics, lack of commitment to democratic ideals, ethnicity, and bureaucratic incompetence and inexperience that surfaced in the 1950s, political corruption rose to subsume all of them and therefore become the emblematic defect of the fledgling republic.
This monster called political corruption has continued to cripple successive government in Nigeria. The First Republic (1960-1966) became the victim of political corruption as state contracts and loan programmes were systematically milked to enrich elected officials. The period of the Nigerian Civil War was not in any way better. This period which coincided with the Gowon’s administration became an era of open display of corrupt practices as some Government functionaries were exposed. Gowon’s style of eradication of corruption woefully failed as a commission of inquiry appointed by General Murtala Muhammed after his assumption to power by August 1975 coup convicted ten of the country’s twelve military governors of diverting funds totalling over $20million (Diamond, 1991: 74).
Although there had been no government in Nigeria that had demonstrated a strong will to fight corruption between 1975 and 1979 than Murtala/Obasanjo administration, this notwithstanding it was unable to rid the society of this disease by the time it handed over power to the civilian politicians in October1979.The beginning of the Second Republic marked another resurgence of political corruption that surpassed the previous regimes. Thus Western diplomats and economists unofficially estimated the private wealth exported by top government officials in the Second Republic at between $5 and $7 billion (Diamond, 1984: 908). By December 31 when the military took over and arrest of politicians was made, million of naira were found in cash in the houses of these corrupt politicians. In fact, the magnitude of corrupt practices that pervaded the entire republic earned the period the golden age of corruption (Adamolekun, 1985: 88).
With all intents and purposes to fight against political corruption, the Buhari/Idiagbon government could not do much because the regime’s disregard to due process discredited its campaign against political corruption. The advent of Babangida’s no doubt heightened corruption in the country. Babangida who claimed to be the messiah of the country soon fell victim of corrupt practices as he was accused of large cash gifts to military officers, cabinet ministers, traditional rulers, and potentially contentious opponents; of Mercedes Benz cars given to major newspaper editors and directors of state broadcasting corporations; of the president’s secret personal investments in banks and companies; of off the book oil being lifted offshore by private tankers (Diamond, 1991: 76). It was this tempo of corrupt practices that besmeared the Third Republic.
The rise of public administration and the discovery of petroleum and natural gas are two major events seen to have led to a litany of ignoble corrupt practices in the country. Over the years, the country has seen its wealth withered with little to show in living conditions of the average human being. A Nigerian political leader, Obafemi Awolowo raised a salient issue when he said, since independence, our governments have been a matter of few holding the cow for the strongest and most cunning to milk, Under those circumstances everybody runs over everybody to make good at the expense of others. The pervasive corruption has been blamed on colonialism. According to this view, the nation’s colonial history may have restricted any early influence in an ethical revolution. Throughout the colonial period, most Nigerians were stuck in ignorance and poverty. The trappings of flash cars, houses and success of the colonists may influence the poor to see the colonist as symbols of success and to emulate the colonists in different political ways.
Involvement in the agenda of colonial rule may also inhibit idealism in the early stage of the nascent nation’s development. A view commonly held during the colonial days was that the colonists property (cars,houses,farms etc.) is not “our” property. Thus vandalism and looting of public property was not seen as a crime against society. This view is what has degenerated into the more recent disregard for public property and lack of public trust and concern for public goods as a collective national property.
Petty corruption is reportedly widespread and surveys indicate that it is very hard to do business in Nigeria without having to pay facilitation payments to public officials. Companies should note that property rights, contracts and commercials disputes can be difficult to enforce and settle in Nigerian courts due to corruption, inefficiency and under-staffing. Tax administration lacks transparency that has led either to high levels of tax evasion or tax officials demanding bribes in return for lower tax rates. The police are perceived to be one of the most corrupt institutions in Nigeria, and X Squad, the disciplinary body responsible for investigating corruption inside the police is reportedly corrupt themselves as well.
Corruption in Nigeria is not a unique phenomenon. Its causes as well as its remedies are similar to those of other countries throughout the world. Although global experience has proven that the fight against corruption cannot be efficient or effective without the backing of relevant legal frameworks, experience has also proven that legal frameworks are not enough without strong political will and civil society participation. Various anti-corruption attempts by both military and civilian federal governments in Nigeria are a case in point. In dealing with the social virus of corruption almost total failure has resulted, illustrating the need to go beyond legal frameworks. As President Olusegun Obasanjo argues in his paper, “Nigeria: from pond of corruption to island of integrity,” Nigeria, right from independence in 1960, has always had enough laws to address the problem of corruption in the country.
1.2 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
One of the pertinent issues in Nigeria today is the focus on one of the greatest impediment to good governance and sustainable development corruption.
In recent times, corruption has as an issue taken the front burner in development discourse worldwide.
Since 1996, the World Bank has supported more than six hundred (600) anti–corruption programmes and governance initiative developed by its member countries.
Especially in 1999, the World Bank institute budgeted a whopping $7.5million to fight corruption (Polzer, 200:2; Tesh, 1991:1).
Ironically, the global financial body was embroiled in scandalous dealings that led to the removal of its chairman.
This goes to show the obvious relevance corruption has to sustainable growth and development.
The world’s major religions in their holy books are concerned with the evil of corruption amongst the rich and powerful, and prescribed rules for punishing perpetrators and the wiping out of corrupt acts.
The Qu’ran chapter 83, warmed believers against the fraudulent and corrupt practices of the Arabian society in the pre-Islamic era (Olurode, 2003:3).
The Holy Bible in proverbs (22:8, 11:20 and 13:11) (Olurode 2005:3) admonished the people about corruption and its consequences, promising perpetrators that they would be losers on judgment day.
Accountability is typically weak in Nigeria because the county is ripe for corruption and rife with it.
The motivation to earn extra income is extremely strong, worsened by poverty and low and declining civil services salaries.
Thus, corruption has become a cankerworm in the political system, stifling it of its potential sustainable growth.
In spite of these efforts, the level of corruption is still of serious concern and remains the greatest challenge. Majority of Nigerians are yet to buy into the anti corruption programme of the Federal Government, particularly at the state and local government levels. Consequently, the negative consequences of the endemic corruption continue to impede development and threaten security of lives of the citizenry. Poverty, unemployment, insecurity of life and property and decaying infrastructure are the common features which are largely attributable to the high incidence of corruption which has reached an endemic level.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To evaluate transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria.
2. To examine political corruption and its dilemma on Nigeria’s fourth republic which culminate first from Obasanjo’s fourth republic beginning by May 29, 1999 and the second section considers the Yar’Adua administration and corruption in Nigeria.
3. To know the latest Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) placed Nigeria as the 32nd most corrupt country out of 147 countries that were assessed in 2007.
4. To review the dimensions of corruption in Nigeria and its implications and propose measures which, if adopted, will assist in drastically reducing its level to the barest minimum, and ensure that national resources are used to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015.
5 To identify the inherent nature of transparency international and corrupt practices in Nigerian since 1999-2012
To assess the effect of transparency international and corrupt practices on Nigeria’s development.
6. To appraise the activities of the EFCC.
7. To ascertain if the EFCC has succeeded or failed in its quest to wipe out corruption in Nigeria.
The strategy (2011-2020) promotes a three phased approach with an initial focus on (1) strengthening the capacities of the dedicated anti-corruption and public accountability bodies, followed by (2) mainstreaming of anti-corruption and governance principles into the work of the MDAs and finally by (3) strengthening accountability, integrity and transparency at the State and local government levels, the private sector and the society at large.
The implementation of the strategy is to be in three overlapping phases with some of the interventions at the three phases running concurrently.
A strong monitoring and evaluation system is to be put into place with a view to ensuring that individual MDAs prioritise and fulfil their obligations under the strategy and that the public, the private sector and the international community are informed of and involved in the assessment of progress.
The strategy galvanises and reaffirms the unwavering commitment of the Federal Government of Nigeria in the fight against corruption by creating a single vision and a shared sense of purpose by those tasked to prevent and combat corruption on behalf of all Nigerians.
it help design and implement system for financial and administrative oversight of grants and project of the Americas Department (one country and multi-country) and provides administrative and logistical support to two senior programmed co-ordinators;
2. being the lead co-ordinator, including financial and administrative management and monitoring of activities and result of the grants provided to TI nations in the Americas through the TI Anti-corruption. Delivery change (AD:DC) global programmes; and
3. Provide lead logistical supervision and co-ordination of key regional meetings.
The works of Transparency International is around and demand in population; enterprises and politics. In order to arrange for example the annual corruption index of the countries questionnaires provided with questions how; Which sector are according to their opinion affected particularly by corruption? (with a valuation of 1 (corrupt free) to 5 (particularly corrupt) as strongly their life is affected by corruption? (with valuation scale 1 (not at all) totally).
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.What are the transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria?
2. How one examine the political corruption and its dilemma on Nigeria’s fourth republic which culminate first from Obasanjo’s fourth republic beginning by May 29, 1999 and the second section considers the Yar’Adua administration and corruption in Nigeria?
3. What are the latest Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) placed Nigeria as the 32nd most corrupt country out of 147 countries that were assessed in 2007?
4. What are the dimensions of corruption in Nigeria and its implications and propose measures which, if adopted, will assist in drastically reducing its level to the barest minimum, and ensure that national resources are used to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015?
5. Is possible to identify the inherent nature of transparency international and corrupt practices in Nigerian since 1999-2012?
6. What are the effects of transparency international and corrupt practices on Nigeria’s development?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESI
H0: There is no significant relationship between transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria.
H0: One cannot examine the political corruption and its dilemma on Nigeria’s fourth republic which culminate first from Obasanjo’s fourth republic beginning by May 29, 1999 and the second section considers the Yar’Adua administration and corruption in Nigeria.
H1: One can examine the political corruption and its dilemma on Nigeria’s fourth republic which culminate first from Obasanjo’s fourth republic beginning by May 29, 1999 and the second section considers the Yar’Adua administration and corruption in Nigeria.
H0: There is no latest Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) placed Nigeria as the 32nd most corrupt country out of 147 countries that were assessed in 2007.
H1: There is a latest Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) placed Nigeria as the 32nd most corrupt country out of 147 countries that were assessed in 2007.
H0: There are no dimensions of corruption in Nigeria and its implications and propose measures which, if adopted, will assist in drastically reducing its level to the barest minimum, and ensure that national resources are used to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015.
H1: There are dimensions of corruption in Nigeria and its implications and propose measures which, if adopted, will assist in drastically reducing its level to the barest minimum, and ensure that national resources are used to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015.
H0: It is impossible to identify the inherent nature of transparency international and corrupt practices in Nigerian since 1999-2012.
H1: It is impossible to identify the inherent nature of transparency international and corrupt practices in Nigerian since 1999-2012.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
- A study of this nature will primarily create awareness to the school management on the effect of corruption and mismanagement on public expenditure in Nigeria.
- To provide basic information on the effect of corruption and mismanagement and the role of EFCC in combating it.
- To prevent and give guidelines to the corrective measures to be carried out.
- To arouse the workers and staffs towards efficient devotion of themselves to their mission.
- The study will also create awareness to the government on the evils of corruption and mismanagement and to look for necessary ways of combating the crime effectively.
- It also helps to assist management to improve and adopt strategies to reduce corruption and mismanagements in various institutions.
- The result of corruption and mismanagement is dangerous, deadly and cannot be over-emphasized.
- A study of this nature aim at erasing this “cancer” (Corruption and mismanagement) that runs in our veins, and call us order for the betterment of the mankind and for the upliftment of the -country in general.
- Teenagers and generations unborn will be very free from this contagious disease (B&C), if the government and the entire populace will mount an implementable strategies of effectively combating the crime.
- The workers would also find this work very beneficial, as they consult it whenever they need such related information.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on transparency international and the challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria 1999-2012
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. TIME: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. FINANCE: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. INFORMATION CONSTRAINTS: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private business organization and even government agencies. The members of transparency international find it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Transparency international: Transparency international, briefly (TI), is a non-governmental organsiation with seat, acting world-wide, in Berlin which engages itself in national and international people and economical corruption fight and raising the awareness of it. This includes, but not limited to political corruption, it publishes yearly its corruption perception index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide.
Corruption is a social problem that has interested many scholars. Ruzindana (1999) asserts that corruption in Africa is a problem of routine deviation from established standards and norms by public officials and parties with whom they interact. He also identifisd the types of corruption in Africa as bribery, private gain, and other benefits to non-existent workers and pensioners (called ghost workers).
Crime; Is simply defined as offence for which there is severe punishment by law.
B & C; Corruption and mismanagement
WAIC War Against Indiscipline & Corr
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