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LEAD INDUCED FRONTAL NEUROTOXICITY AND MORINGA SEED OIL
1.1 Background of the study
Every part of M. oleifera is a storehouse of important nutrients and antinutrients. The leaves of M. oleifera are rich in minerals like calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, iron and copper . Vitamins like beta-carotene of vitamin A, vitamin B such as folic acid, pyridoxine and nicotinic acid, vitamin C, D and E also present in M. oleifera . Phytochemicals such as tannins, sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids and reducing sugar present along with anti-cancerous agents like glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, glycoside compounds and glycerol-1-9-octadecanoate. Moringa leaves also have a low calorific value and can be used in the diet of the obese. The pods are fibrous and are valuable to treat digestive problems and thwart colon cancer. A research shows that immature pods contain around 46.78% fiber and around 20.66% protein content. Pods have 30% of amino acid content, the leaves have 44% and flowers have 31%. The immature pods and flowers showed similar amounts of palmitic, linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids.
Moringa has lot of minerals that are essential for growth and development among which, calcium is considered as one of the important minerals for human growth. While 8 ounces of milk can provide 300–400 mg, moringa leaves can provide 1000 mg and moringa powder can provide more than 4000 mg. Moringa powder can be used as a substitute for iron tablets, hence as a treatment for anemia. Beef has only 2 mg of iron while moringa leaf powder has 28 mg of iron. It has been reported that moringa contains more iron than spinach . A good dietary intake of zinc is essential for proper growth of sperm cells and is also necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. M. oleifera leaves show around 25.5–31.03 mg of zinc/kg, which is the daily requirement of zinc in the diet .
PUFAs are linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid; these PUFAs have the ability to control cholesterol. Research show that moringa seed oil contains around 76% PUFA, making it ideal for use as a substitute for olive oil . A point to note is that the nutrient composition varies depending on the location. Fuglie  revealed that seasons influence the nutrient content. It was shown that vitamin A was found abundantly in the hot-wet season, while vitamin C and iron were more in the cool-dry season . The difference in results can be attributed to the fact that the location, climate and the environmental factors significantly influence nutrient content of the tree .
Most plants lose their nutritive properties when processed. When compared, the nutritive content of raw, germinated and fermented moringa seed flour, it was found that phytochemicals were higher in raw seed flour and amino acid content was at its peak in fermented and germinated seed flour , . This can be a result of the biochemical activities during germination and microbial activity during fermentation. However, a study reviewed the effect of boiling, simmering and blanching to see the retention of nutrient content of moringa leaves. Interestingly, boiling was the most effective of all the techniques as it reduced the cyanide, oxalate and phytate contents, more significantly than the other two methods. The presence of phytate and other anti-nutrients can reduce the bioavailability of certain nutrients and processing can hence be done for maximum utilization of required nutrients from the seeds and leaves , . Yang et al.  reported that boiling increased the availability of iron and antioxidant content. Hence, the processed moringa seed flour can be used to treat malnutrition problems. However, some studies have shown that children refuse to take in moringa due to its slight bitter taste . Kiranawati et al.  designed moringa noodles by three methods of cooking noodles, sautéing, steaming and boiling. These noodles were tested on rats and the effects on mammary glands were studied. Interestingly, the sautéed noodles had a better effect on the mammary glands of rats and improved milk production. The effect of sautéing on the noodles improved lactogogum values, because the oil used was rich in sterols. M. oleifera have also been incorporated into chocolates. A recent report tested different percentages of moringa in the chocolate fortification and found that, 20% moringa incorporation in cocoa powder was ideal. Similarly, moringa incorporation in halawa tahinia also increased the nutrient value of the delicacy. Such studies have shown the potential for developing protein and minerals-rich chocolate and halawa tahinia . Several such moringa fortifications are possible to ensure intake of adequate amounts of nutrients in children.
Moringa can also be preserved for a long time without loss of nutrients. Drying or freezing can be done to store the leaves. A report by Yang et al.  shows that a low temperature oven used to dehydrate the leaves retained more nutrients except vitamin C than freeze-dried leaves. Hence, drying can be done using economical household appliance like stove to retain a continuous supply of nutrients in the leaves. Preservation by dehydration improves the shelf life of Moringa without change in nutritional value
1.2 Statement of the problem
An overdose of moringa may cause high accumulation of iron. High iron can cause gastrointestinal distress and hemochromatosis. Hence, a daily dose of 70 g of moringa is suggested to be good and prevents over accumulation of nutrients.
1.3 Objectives of the study
- To identify the presence and concentration of frontal neurotoxicity
- There is a strong relationship between moringa seed oil and lead induced frontal neurotoxicity.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the presence and concentration of frontal neurotoxicity
- What is relationship between moringa seed oil and lead induced frontal neurotoxicity.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between moringa seed oil and lead induced frontal neurotoxicity.
H1: There is a relationship between moringa seed oil and lead induced frontal neurotoxicity.
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