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1.1     Background of the Study

The school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).  Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

          The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao 2001)

School environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning  could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students’ academic performance in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students` academic performance.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned areas of school environment as it affect students performance in Nigerian schools.

Teaching and learning situation in schools present a twin scenario in which as one is presented, the other takes place and in the case, the former leads to the latter. Both concepts determine and contribute to the environment of the school and therefore the productivity of the teacher. School environment is a set of unique characteristics of a school often determining the efficiency and effectiveness of the school. These characteristics distinguish one school from another. In one school the school head, teachers and staffs may find pleasure in working together. In another school, it may be discontent among the staff. In one school, staff may appear well organized seem competent and exhibit confidence in whatever they do, yet in another school, there may be tension as the school head loses control (Clifton 1999). School environment is related to school connectedness because without a positive and welcoming school environment, both students and teachers are unlikely to experience connectedness; the poor connectedness would have negative effect on teachers’ job productivity and students’ achievement.

Productivity of an organization is defined as the ratio of outputs produced by the organization and the resources consumed in the process. Teacher productivity is the ratio of output produced by the teachers to the student population. Here the output refers to the quality and quality of students produced by the teachers. The staffing, infrastructure, materials and other components composing the school environment including management, sum up to determine what the output, students performance will be. The working environment of a given school is usually a function of its philosophy as it influences a great deal what is being done in the school system. Society demands more than the basic economic responsibilities of increasing employment, wages, fringe benefits, student’s input-output ration and a developed curriculum. There is also a great pressure on the demand for infrastructures and good community relationship which all influence the performance of the teachers and students.  Thus, working environment plays a major role in the process and practice of teaching and learning.

The learning environment determines the extent of success that will be recorded by a given institution. A school system exists in association and affiliation with its environment, the school environment does not exist in a vacuum and it provides the resources and limitations to the school setting. If the school remains prosperous, it could be because of the favorable environment of the school that has encouraged it. And failure to adequately adapt to the environment may cause failure of the school system.

The success in the school system thus depends if not totally on the various environmental factors such as the available infrastructures, the location of the school, the type of the school mapping, accessibility of the school vicinity which directly influences the teaching learning processes in a given school setting. This is why school administrators need to make available favourable working conditions and school environments for the teachers and non-teaching staff members because this influences the teaching-learning situation a great deal and it affects their performance in the school. Boripe (1991) gave the following as elements of good environment of an organization, persons, physical, resources, climate, economics resources, market conditions, attitude, laws, social cultural environment and government policies (political).

In any school setting the above also; could be attached to the school environmental factors (work environment) influencing activities of the teaching-learning situation.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is a growing concern on the relationship between school environment and its influence on teachers job performance, it is good know the depth or levels of effect or influence of environment status of a secondary school on the academic job activities of a teacher, and consequently on how it impacts on the overall general performance of secondary school students.

Emphasizing the importance of school environment to students academic performance, Oluchukwu, (2000) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of educational planning, he went further to explain that “unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.

The high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact of school environment on students’ academic performance in an urban city like Abuja.

The teacher productivity in secondary school may be determined by several factors. It has also been observed that the expected outcome of teacher performance which is better student achievement is not easily achieved in the school system. People are complaining about the poor productivity of teachers which in turn leads to poor students’ achievement. Hence the need to conduct this study is highly important.

The school environment is seen as the overall set of forces that characterize the setting of the industrial relation system as part of the general context within a particular society. This consists of unique set of forces, personal, political, economical, technological, socio-cultural and international factors.

Environment means those factors and event in a country that have helped to shape the country’s industrial relation. These include the historical and political development and the economic changes that have taken place over the years. He also includes the socio-cultural factor affecting attitudes and behavior.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

                   i.            To examine the relationship between school environment and teachers’ job, and student academic performance

                ii.            To examine the impact of school facilities on teachers’ job, and academic performance of  students  in the secondary school

             iii.            To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibitteachers teaching, and students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school

             iv.            To investigate the extent to which school location affects the academic achievement of secondary school students, and teaching performance of teachers.

1.4     Research Questions

       i.            Is there any relationship between school environment, teachers job performance and the student academic performance?

    ii.            To what extent do school facilities affect teachers, and student performance in secondary school?

 iii.            What effect does class size has on the teachers job performance, and academic performance of students in secondary school?

 iv.            To what extent does school location has on the achievement of secondary school students, and teaching performance of teachers?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between school environment, teachers job performance and the student academic performance

Ho2      There is no significant difference between school facilities, teachers’ job performance and academic performance  of students

Ho3      There is no significant difference between class size, teachers’ job performance and academic performance  of students

Ho4      There is no significant difference between school location, teachers job performance and academic performance  of students

1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students and teachers in achieving their academic goals, and teaching goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on influence of school environment on academic performance of secondary school students in some selected schools in  Abuja Municipal Council FCTOf Abuja. This research work  covers all public secondary schools students in Abuja Municipal Council FCTOf Abuja. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Abuja Municipal Council FCT Of Abuja as the title suggest.

1.9     Research Methodology     

A descriptive research design will be use in carrying out this study. The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. For this research work, random sampling technique will be used. This study will be restricted to the categories of students the researcher considered essentially relevant to issues being investigated. Simple percentage statistical analysis will be used for the study.

1.10   Definition of Terms

School: A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers    

School Environment: A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Academic Achievement – Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by  test scores.

Secondary school (also”high school”)is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.


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