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NEW TECHNOLOGIES REQUIRED IN THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Technology has become an integral part of the instructional process resulting in the development of new concepts in the logistics of instruction. The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) gadgets and machines has made teaching and learning a bit easier, concrete, real and more result-oriented. Since the introduction of ICT, there has been a growing concern for the use of new technologies.
Technology is defined by Redmann and Kotrlik (2008) as the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems and methods of organization in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input or output relation or perform a specific function. Technology is ubiquitous, touching almost every part of our lives, our communities, our homes. Yet most schools lag far behind when it comes to integrating technology into classroom learning. Many are just beginning to explore the true potentials technology offers for teaching and learning. When properly used, technology will help students acquire the skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge-based economy. Thus, technologies are applied in classroom situation to enhance teaching and learning processes.
Ekpenyong (2004) asserted that old technologies used in teaching have their origin from Paul Frefor banking of knowledge. At the period when educators were seen as the custodians and distributors of knowledge, whatever, the educators said were right and students must follow strictly all the dictates of the teachers. Ekpenyong (2004) condemned these old technologies applied in teaching as it was characterized by fatigue, poor relationship between students and teachers, low motivation for learning, teacher-centered and low retention of knowledge. Therefore, a business educator who has not been trained in the new technologies cannot be effective, efficient or able to deliver the knowledge and skills required by the students to succeed in a new work environment that is increasingly ICT based. It is in keeping with the dynamics of social change and the demands on education that the federal government of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) came up with some policy innovations and changes, one of which was the introduction of information and communications technology (ICT) into the school system.
Specifically, business education as a component of vocational technical education programme, prepares individuals for careers in business and to be an intelligent economic consumers of goods and services (Ugwoke, 2011). Therefore, for the business education programme to sustain its relevance in providing the needs of individuals and that of the society, it must embrace current trends in modern technologies in the academic and economic demands of the society.
New technologies in teaching and learning in business education programmes according to Ezenwafor (2012) include:
a) Using broadcast materials or CD-Rom for information collection and storage;
b) Using micro-computers with soft-ware applications to write or produce documents,
c) Skillful keyboarding,
d) E-mail and Messaging,
e) Internet browsing using search engines, windows messenger, yahoo chat room and so on.
f) Using opaque projectors, slide projectors and multimedia projectors.
g) Utilizing e-banking, e-commerce, e-economies, and so on and
h) Utilizing different computer software, and applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, power-point, desktop publishing, and graphics among others.
Other technological devices available for teaching and learning according to Osuala (2009) include media typewriter or processor, video tape recorder, sound on pepper system, e-commerce, advanced calculators, dial access system, digital library, individual audio application and audio-visual retrieval system. Although these technologies are not new in many advanced countries, they are relatively new in Nigeria. While some of them are already being utilized in some schools, they are yet to be used in many of Nigeria’s educational institutions.
New technologies in business education programme, according to Achugbue (2011) have posed many challenges to business educators in Nigeria. Achugbue (2011) further opined that business education in colleges of education would achieve the goals of teaching if such modern technological teaching aids like computers, electric typewriters, television sets, projectors, internet facilities, among others are adequately provided and utilized.Many colleges of education do not give adequate priority and attention to the acquisition and utilization of new instructional technologies needed for teaching and learning. The dearth of these facilities makes it difficult to teach and prepare business education students for the use of new technologies now and in future world of work.
However, Reigebuth and Joseph (2002) saw technology integration as focusing on “how” to use technology to support the way teaching and learning is currently being done in schools. It also enhances the use of modern instructional mode of teaching and learning in tertiary institutions to meet the demands of the current trends in academics. Integrating technology into classroom instruction means more than teaching basic computer skills and software programs in a separate computer class. Effective technology integration must happen across the curriculum in ways that deepen and enhance the learning process. In particular, it must support four key components of learning: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Effective technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and when technology supports curricula goals. Technology also changes the way teachers teach, offering educators’ effective ways to reach different types of learners and assess students’ understanding through multiple means. It also enhances the relationship between teachers and students. When technology is effectively integrated into subject areas, teachers become advisers, content experts, and coaches. Technology helps to make teaching and learning more meaningful and fun.
According to Nagel (2013), despite increasingly widespread adoption of technologies in virtually every aspect of education, significant challenges are preventing widespread affective implementation. Nagel observed that key among all the challenges is the lack of sustainable professional development for business educators who are required to integrate the new technologies into classroom practices. It is against this background that this study was carried out to ascertain the challenges of integrating new technologies into the teaching and learning of business education programmes in colleges of education. The study will also try to find out ways of improving the use of new technologies in business education in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
2.Statement of the Problem
One of the aims of integrating new technologies is to improve the quality of education and expand access to education. The education sector is expected to be technologically driven and requires that technological resources are fully integrated in it. Unfortunately, the education sector seems to be lacking the necessary technological resources needed to bring the Nigerian education sector at par with international standards. Business education programme being a skills development programme seem to be worst hit by the dearth of requisite technological tools on the one hand and the skills needed to effect the integration on the other. The consequence is that the programme is faced with the challenge of producing the needed manpower for the world of work. For technology to be successfully useful and deliver the goods expected of it such as making business education graduates global workers, it should be made part of the educational delivery of learning.
3.Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to ascertain the challenges of integrating new technologies in teaching and learning in the business education programme in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Ascertain the availability of new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
2. Ascertain the challenges of integrating the new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
3. Find out the ways of improving the use of new technology for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
The following research questions guided the study.
1. What new technologies are available for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East-Nigeria?
2. What are the challenges of integrating new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East-Nigeria?
3. In what ways can the use of new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria be improved?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance
1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of experienced and less experienced business educators on the challenges of integrating new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
2. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of experienced and less experienced business educators on the ways of improving the use of new technologies for teaching and learning business education programmes in colleges of education in South-East Nigeria.
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