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THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE
The word motivation comes from the Latin word EMOVERE which mean to move. Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desire, and needs wishes and similar forces inherent in an individual, which make him behave in a particular way.
Thus, motivation could simply refer to as those inner drives that activate, energies of move behavioural patterns of individuals or group and sustain them towards the satisfaction of a felt needs. Motivation is interested in the “WHY” or rationale behind human behaviours. Although not all-human behaviour is motivated, some are based on reflex action, habit or instinct. A manager is only interested in those behaviours that can be motivated when an individual is left with a choice.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Approval – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledge – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table Of Content – – – – – – – ix
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Statement of General Problem – – – – 4
1.2 Objective of the Essay – – – – – 5
1.3 Significance of the Essay – – – – – 7
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Essay – – – 8
2.O Literature Review – – – – – – 11
2.1 Definition – – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Ways of Motivating Employees – – – – 13
2.3 Factors of Motivation – – – – – – 16
2.4 Theories of Motivation – – – – – – 18
2.5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – – – 20
2.6 Herzberg two Factors Theory of Motivation – – 22
2.7 Dorglas Mcgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y – – 24
2.8 The Expectancy Theory – – – – – 26
2.9 Reinforcement Theory – – – – – – 28
2.10 Effect of Motivation on Employees performance – 30
3.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation – – 37
3.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 38
3.3 Recommendation – – – – – – 39
Reference – – – – – – – – 41
One of the major problems confronting management today is that of motivating to perform assigned task to meet or surpasses predetermined standard. Motivation is that energizing forces that induces or compels and maintains behaviour. Human behaviour is motivated it is goals directed.
It is not easy to motivate an individual, for the success of any motivational effort depends on the extent of which the motivator meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is an internal psychological process whose presence or absence is intended from observed performance.
In Nigeria today, lack of proper managerial knowledge, economic depression and high rate of unemployment have made most workers subjected to themselves, to deplorable working conditions, which of course are the catalyst of low performance.
The management of most organization tends to believe that workers are satisfied with their job but unfortunately they are not.
The disadvantage of these to the employers that workers will not put in their best and the result will be low performance.
Managers in most of the organization are aware of the situation in the labour market, and as such went to capitalize on that to subject workers to deplorable working condition. It is when one is satisfied both physically and psychologically that such a person can perform his best. Therefore, intimidating workers or threatening to sack can only worsen the situation. But cannot solve it.
Job satisfaction presupposes going to work and getting believed of work done. In Nigeria, most at times, the pay given to a worker is not commensurable to the type of work done. This is the reason why sometimes efficient and experience worker leave an organization for another organization that pay more or stay in the organization and perform below expectation.
Job dissatisfaction is quite prevalent in most organization. low performance which comes as a result of job dissatisfaction is always the basis for conflict between organization and workers. Managers always blame the workers for not putting in their best, and on side of the workers they blame management for not providing or creating an enabling environment as in motivation. Whoever may be guilty, the bottom line is satisfying the objective of the organization, which of course is to make enough profit to keep the organization moving.
To meet the above object there need for both the management and employee to reach a consensus, the management meeting the desires of the workers and in turn the employees putting in their best in terms of performance. The workers need security of all types; physical, psychological and economic are important for effective and efficient performance.
Security can serve as an incentive to some individual to remain with the organization and to put in maximum effort in performance.
1.1 STATEMENT OF GENERAL PROBLEM
Some organization tends to employ more personnel in order to meet the set target of their organization’s production and to satisfy the primary demand of customer. However, despites all these effort, there could still be inefficiency that is performance could still be below expectation.
This situation, which have a negative effect on sales, call for great concern and action in order to check and make proper correction to the problem.
When an employee is confronted with a problem in work situation, his usual reaction will be to adopt a problem solving behaviour, which may take the form variability in though, or action. If the variability in action and thought does not appear to be the solution to problem, the employees can abandon the problem and settle for less.
As a result, motivating the personnel to find out what could be responsible becomes inevitable.
- AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE ESSAY
This study is aimed at looking at possible areas workers can be motivated to increase their level of performance and high productivity.
No matter how good any organization is, it does not get any thing done properly until people who make the organization do it.
Workers in the past were satisfied with money management they though when that money could boost the workers and their level of performance and efficiency.
The basic salary of the lowest cadre of employees in the labour market has been increased frequently but they still perform very much below the normal level expected of them.
Even with the best strategy in place an appropriate organizational architecture, an organization will be effective only if its members are motivated to perform at a high level. A key challenge for managers or organization both large and small is to encourage employees to perform at a high level.
The objective of this study is aims at describing what motivation is, where it comes from and why managers need to promote high levels of it for an organization to be effective and achieve its goals.
- SIGNIFICANT OF THE ESSAY
The important of this study is mainly for the expansion of knowledge to ascertain whether the employees are encourages by some motivational factors or encourage by their habit to work hard in other to achieve organizational goals or objectives.
From the various studies as well as discussion mentioned earlier, it is apparent that there is enough reason to warrant a study that will examine factors relating the effects of motivation on employees.
Since current investigations have revealed little scientific search in this area, the studies will some what pioneer a search for the true position.
An unmotivated employee is a threat to any organization concerned. When an employees fails to achieve a goal or perceive that he cannot achieve a goal, he feels frustrated and could develop other peculiarity characteristic of the position in which he finds himself.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE ESSAY
For the purpose of this study as the topic depicts, the scope of the essay will be focused on motivational factors on employees performance. The research covers in a comprehensive position the principles, techniques method involved in motivational factors.
In the earlier stage of the study there is a detailed coverage of the objective, principles, techniques and methods of motivation, relating to the analysis and gathering of motivation and motivational ascertainment. At each stage, concept are illustrated by practical example and placed into context so that the readers are aware of the importance and relationships of the various aspects of motivational factors.
This study does not cover all the motivational factors contain in some advance books or syllabuses.
It is necessary to mention some of the limitation of this research work. The chief limitation is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information. The polytechnic library has related books on the subject of the study.
The method at collected data created problem, since the researchers has to interviewing the workers as a result of their tight working schedule. Subsequent to this problem is the combination of academic work with the study.
Not withstanding, in the highlighted limitation above, it is hoped that this research will be useful to the organization studies and other similar organization that may want to achieve high performance through motivation of the employees.
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