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ASSESSMENT OF SUITABLE CUTTING BOARD FOR GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICE IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE KITCHEN OF HIGH CLASS IN HOTEL/RESTAURANT
1.1 Background of the study
Food hygiene knowledge is very important, and it is crucial that it is improved in food service establishments. The lack of such knowledge by food handlers may lead to infection of food prepared. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring the safety of food throughout production and storage. A recent meta-analysis has shown that food hygiene training increases knowledge and improves attitudes about hand hygiene practices and that refresher training and regular emphasis on hand washing practices among food handlers (Noon & Baines, 2012).
The attitude of a food handler is a crucial factor that may influence food hygiene behaviour and practices (Al-shabi, Mosithey & Husain, 2016). Improper handling is responsible for most cases of foodborne illness. Training for caterers has been shown to improve food hygiene knowledge and awareness and may result in improved hygiene practices. According to Soares et al. (2012) training programs are an integral part of creating a positive culture of food hygiene and they must occur occasionally, in order to promote changes in people’s behaviours through attitudes and practices that encourage the production of safe food by reducing the risk of foodborne illness. This simply implies that the training of food handlers on hygiene has a positive impact on their behaviours and attitudes.
A food hygiene mistake in a restaurant, serving hundreds and thousands of customers has the potential to make many people ill. Food hygiene is important in food service because of the high numbers of meals served every day. Foodborne outbreaks resulting from such mass restaurant facilities have been reported worldwide (Jong & Angulo, 2010). According to Pilcherer et al. (2014) thirty-one percent of foodborne outbreaks that occurred in the European Union were associated with restaurants, cafes, pubs, bars and hotels. Foodservice operations are facing a huge responsibility in ensuring that the food people consume is free from illness.
Poor food hygiene practises have resulted in many foodborne outbreaks as stated by the European food safety authority (EFSA, 2013). Food hygiene is ultimate in food service because of the high numbers of meals served every day. Food-borne outbreaks resulting from such mass restaurant facilities have been reported worldwide (Jones & Angelo, 2010). It is important that foodservice establishment managers or people in charge enforce hygiene practices especially on food handlers. The issue or concern of foodborne illness outbreaks are a serious factor as several incidents have been reported across the globe. According to Pichiler et al. (2014), thirty-one percent of the foodborne outbreaks occurred in the European Union were associated with restaurants, cafes, pubs, bars and hotels, and 17% was linked to catering for schools, kindergartens, residential institutions, temporary mass events and workplace canteens.
A food hygiene oversight or negligence in a restaurant serving hundreds or thousands of customers has the potential to make many people ill. The five main risk factors that contribute to foodborne illness outbreaks in restaurants are improper holding temperature of food, poor personal hygiene of food handlers, inadequate cooking, contaminated equipment, and unsafe food (Hertzman & Barrash, 2011). Poor knowledge of hygiene and practices can also contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illness (Kumusa, 2016). According to the WHO (2010) food handlers play a significant role in ensuring food is safe throughout the chain of production and storage, therefore it is important that the food handling personnel are educated on hygiene and also follow hygiene practices such as thorough washing of hands before handling food using soap, wearing clean uniform on duty, washing their hands after using the toilet and other hygiene practices.
The WHO (2011) has stated that each year over two million people die from diarrheal disease, many of which are acquired from eating contaminated food from foodservice establishments such as restaurants, fast food restaurants, hotels, hospitals, schools etc. This is where the importance of hygiene comes in, by ensuring that the food people consume is safe and in avoiding foodborne illness outbreaks, especially because foodservice establishments cater for a large number of people.
Food handlers need proper hygiene practices concerning cleanliness of hands and work clothes and correct methods of handling food and utensils. They must also not smoke cigarettes while preparing or serving food or work in area while infected with any communicable disease (Albert, 2012). The absence of a special smoking area for food handlers in most of the restaurants encouraged them to smoke in areas of preparations, as they spend most of their working time there. Smoking transfer’s contaminants from mouth to hands and cigarettes emit particles that contribute to food contamination (Alkhabit et al., 2010). Therefore smoking in food preparation or near preparation areas should be prohibited. A study in the United Stated of America found that the amount of indoor contamination in restaurants are free of smoke are 84% less than that in restaurants where smoking is allowed (City of Toronto, 2012).
Education is just as important as legislation in approaching the reduction of foodborne illness outbreaks (Worsfold and Griffiths, 2011). Therefore, the training of food handling personnel is very critical, and personnel should be aware of their role and responsibility in protecting the food from contamination. All food handlers should be considered potential carriers of pathogenic microorganisms and should be trained in good manufacturing practices to ensure that they have knowledge and skills necessary for handling food (Worsfold et al., 2011). The South African Bureau of Standards (2015) states that management should be obligated to arrange adequate and continued training in the hygienic handling of food so that they know which precautions to take to reduce or avoid contamination of food.
Studies in the United Kingdom have shown that training increases the level of hygiene and that businesses with a higher percentage of grained staff had a lower risk of their products being dangerous to consumers (Powell & Atwell, 2013). An on-going training of employees plays a significant role in reducing the risk of foodborne illnesses outbreaks. A recent metaanalysis has shown that food safety training increases knowledge and improves attitudes about hand hygiene practices and that refresher training and recurrent emphasis on good food handling behaviour may have an on-going positive effects on hand washing practices among food handlers (Soon & Baines, 2012). Therefore, it is important that management from time to time and on an ongoing basis, ensures proper training on food handling, personal hygiene and hygiene practices.
Khatib & Mitwalli (2010) stated that training of the staff on the principles of handling food in all its stages is important. It has been reported that most outbreaks of foodborne diseases result from faulty food handling practices. Improper food handling practices have contributed to approximately 97% of foodborne illness in foodservice establishments in the United States of America (Siegel, 2013). A report shows that in spite of having some years of experience 62.4% of the food handlers in restaurants had never received any training about personal hygiene. Owners and managers of restaurants themselves may lack basic knowledge about food sanitation and safety, and it should be the role of health to improve hygiene and sanitation awareness among food handlers, restaurant owners and managers (Khatib et al., 2010).
The study conducted in Tirupati and Tirumali (2013) reveals that an overall deficiency in the standards of hygiene, sanitation, food safety practices by food handlers in fast food centres require proper training to improve knowledge and practices. The results revealed that environment in which they work also influence the knowledge and practice of food handlers that more effort is needed to be carried out by the food authorities to improve that level of practices in food safety among the food handlers in Tirupati and Tirumala towns. Inadequate practices can not only be blamed on insufficient knowledge but barriers preventing implementation of their practices despite adequate knowledge are lack of time, lack of staff and lack of resources thus, infrastructure modification, and strengthening is required where training of food handlers is advocated (Sultana Abida et al., 2013).
Accordingly, consumers are highly concerned about foodborne diseases at foodservice establishments. Responding to this concern, many governments have made a great deal of effort to inspect foodservice establishments properly. Restaurants that fail to meet the minimum requirements and standards of food safety and hygiene can face enforcement penalties. Food safety inspectors have a range of options, including voluntary and involuntary enforcement action, to ensure that an adequate level of enforcement is available for offending restaurant owners (Choi, Maclaurin & Ju-Eun Cho, 2015).
Consumers are becoming more food safety conscious, but often that does not translate into increased knowledge or changed behaviour (Altekruse, Yang, Timbo, & Angulo, 2013). Various segments of a population demonstrate different levels of knowledge and commitment to food safety and hygiene behaviours, research conducted with American consumers (Altekruse et al. 2013). Several studies have indicated that a food safety and hygiene standard helps restaurants adhere to standards and reduces the risk of foodborne illness. Moreover, it helps consumers to choose a safer restaurant, resulting in increasing revenue for those restaurants that have received high grades (Cramer, Durbin, & the Vessel Sanitation Program Environmental Health Inspection Team, 2013). However, relatively little research has been conducted to understand consumer perception and behaviour toward food safety and hygiene standards.
The literature reviewed shows that even blowing ones nose, into a handkerchief can contaminate the hands and handlers should avoid direct contact with food if possible (Walker et al., 2010). The five main risk factors that contribute to foodborne illness outbreaks in restaurants are: improper holding temperature of food, poor personal hygiene of food handlers, inadequate cooking, contaminated equipment, and unsafe food (Hertzman & Barrash, 2011) The research findings show that out of the food handlers that were interviewed, 5.3% of food handlers control contamination by keeping the floor and walls clean, 89.5% wash hands as often as necessary and do not touch ready-to eat food with bare hands and 5.3% keep hot food hot and cold food cold. Most food handlers control contamination by washing their hands, not touching ready prepared foods with bare hands which is a good hygiene practice and they also control the temperature of foods by keeping them at the right temperature, as improper holding temperature leads to contamination.
Effective hand washing is an essential control measure for food prevention of pathogen transmission in foodservice establishments and the Health Regulations Act 61 of 2003 stipulates that it is the responsibility of food handlers to wash their hands thoroughly with water and soap under all relevant circumstances (Pilther et al., 2013). Facilities for personnel should be adequate and all hand washing basins in toilet areas must be supplied with hot and cold water, and hand-cleaning preparations in dispenses and paper towels or air dryers should be provided. The result findings show that 26.3% of the food handlers often wash their hands every 30 minutes during preparation and 73.3% wash their hands each time their hands or gloves get contaminated. Most food handlers wash their hands each time their hands get contaminated, which is an upright hygiene practice as literature states that hands should be washed in all applicable situations.
It is essential when raw food materials are handled that the personnel remove jewellery from their hands, and keep fingernails cut short and clean (South African Berea of Standards, 2011). The findings show 5.3% of the food handlers are allowed to wear arm rings in the preparation area, 10.5% are allowed to wear their wedding band and 84.2% are not allowed to wear any of the redundant clothing items. Most food handlers do not wear any redundant clothes when handling food. Food handlers should refrain from wearing jewellery in the food production area, only a plain wedding band is permitted, no necklaces, bracelets, or dangling jewellery are permitted. No earrings or piercing that can be removed are permitted. Results show that 84.2% of food handlers do not wear any jewellery in the food production area.
Food Hygiene, otherwise known as Food hygiene can be defined as handling, preparing and storing food or drink in a way that best reduces the risk of consumers becoming sick from the food-borne disease. The principles of Food hygiene aim to prevent food from becoming contaminated and causing food poisoning.
With this in mind, ensuring that food is safe for human consumption is likely the most critical part of the food preparation process. This ranges from what is called farm to fork, meaning from the farms all the way to your plate. Check out our article on the food production chain and the possible ways contamination can happen.
This means that food hygiene is important at home as well as in the restaurant, retail store or food factory.
There has become an ever-increasing awareness of Food hygiene by the general public and news agencies are reporting on food recalls and outbreaks much more often.
Food hygiene is important for the following reasons:
If food or drink is not safe to eat, you cannot eat or drink. The easiest example of this is safe drinking water. We would never drink water that did not come from a reputable source. The very same principle applies to food.
Every day, people worldwide get sick from the food or drink they consume. Bacteria, viruses and parasites found in food can cause food poisoning.
There is no immediate way of telling if food is contaminated because you cannot see, taste or smell anything different from the norm.
Food poisoning can lead to gastroenteritis and dehydration or potentially even more serious health problems such as kidney failure and death.
This risk is especially significant for those in the high-risk category: Small children/ babies, pregnant moms, the elderly and immunocompromised, especially HIV infections and cancer patients.
Food hygiene and safety prevent germs from multiplying in foods and reaching dangerous levels.
Ensures daily healthy family living.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Keeping one healthy and preventing the additional cost of buying medication and medical check-ups. This is especially important in business. Companies worldwide lose Billions of Dollars per year due to staff downtime.
Hand washing accounts for 33% of all related food poisoning cases. It is therefore important to maintain good personal hygiene practice. This is something we are taught early in our childhood, yet hand washing is still a critical problem in the kitchen
Cross-contamination is a major cause of food poisoning and can transfer bacteria from one food to another (usually raw foods to ready to eat foods).
It is crucial to be aware of how it spreads so you will know how to prevent it. Good food hygiene is therefore essential for food factories to make and sell food that is safe to eat. The first step is for the management and staff to have the knowledge and understand of what food hygiene and Food hygiene
1.3 Objectives of the study
1. To give an assessment of use of cutting board for good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
2. To understand the relationship between the use of suitable cutting board and good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the assessment of use of cutting board for good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
2. What is the relationship between the use of suitable cutting board and good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no significant relationship between use of suitable cutting board and good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
H1: There is a significant relationship between use of suitable cutting board and good hygiene practice in food and beverage kitchen
1.6 Definition of terms
Cutting board: A high-quality cutting board is an essential culinary tool. The preparation of most foods and meals requires that you use one
Hygiene: Conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness.
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